Sunday, December 8, 2019
Question: Jane and Connie are neighbours who both work as purchasing managers in different companies in the petrochemical industry. During one neighbourly discussion, Jane learned that Connie's salary was nearly 15 per cent higher than hers even though their job duties were similar. Other than this difference, both received similar benefits and seemed to enjoy their jobs and colleagues. Jane was upset about Connie's higher salary, although she did her best to hide her emotions from Connie. After all, it wasn't Connie's fault that they received different salary levels. Jane was frustrated not only because Connie received a significantly higher salary, but also because she was certain that she worked longer hours and was more productive than Connie. According to equity theory research, what will Jane probably do to reduce her upset feelings? Answer: Equity theory is focuses on the fact that the persons are motivated by the concept of equality and in case they discover certain inequities in either the input or the yield ratios of themselves and their referent groups they are bound to adjust their input, to reach the professed amount of equity. The higher an individuals conecption of equity, the more motivated an individual will be. It is natural for a person to be de-motivated in case he or she finds that there is an existent unfair environment (Al-Zawahreh Al-Madi, 2012). The most common situations or scenarios where the equity theory approach is found is when employees compare the payments which they receive from their offices and what their friends receive from theirs. In case there are disparities in the salaries in the same post in different companies, there is bound to be a de-motivated feeling. In these situations the people compare their own effort-to-compensation ratio and lose their motivation in the procedure (Al-Zawahreh Al-Madi, 2012). In the given case study, which tells the story of two neighbours, Connie and Jane, despite working as professionals in the same genre, they received salaries which were quite different. Connie received 15% higher salary in comparison to Jane. Connie was frustrated and felt bad that despite being a much more efficient employee her salary was considerably less. It is desirable for employees to report the instances of favouritism and disparities in the compensation to their managers to avoid such problems from the start (Kwon Jang, 2012). References: Al-Zawahreh, A., Al-Madi, F. (2012). The utility of equity theory in enhancing organizational effectiveness.European journal of economics, finance and administrative sciences,46, 158-170. Kwon, S., Jang, S. S. (2012). Effects of compensation for service recovery: From the equity theory perspective.International Journal of Hospitality Management,31(4), 1235-1243.
Saturday, November 30, 2019
Introduction Human resource management is a branch of management which deals with matters that are related to employees of an organization. It covers areas that include the hiring process, development of workers, and safety of the workers, training and motivation among others. It can also be seen as the process of organizing and supervising processes that relate to employees of a firm.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Aspects and Activities of the Human Resource Management specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It entails gaining the confidence of the employee as well as providing favorable environments for efficient output of the employees. The processes of ensuring efficiency of the employee could include training, motivation and enhanced communication among employees at different level of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s structure. This paper seeks to explore and show that how an organization manages the human resources is fundamental to the goal of achieving collective efficiency. The paper will explore the aspects of human resource management with the aim of establishing whether or not human resource management is a fundamental to achieving collective competitive advantage. The paper will therefore in detail examine the activities and processes that are normally undertaken in the department of human resource management with respect to ascertaining or otherwise, the validity of the above statement. The department of human resource management has a wide range of activities it offers to its organization. The department for example has the responsibility of ensuring that its organization gets the best of available workforce. Mechanisms are for this matter established to ensure that thorough scrutiny is done on job applicants before they are absorbed into the firm. Also in the department of human resource is the remuneration and rewarding of a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s workers according to contracts and policies of the subject company. The department also offers and organizes for trainings and workshops for employees in the bid to enhance their productivity in the firm. Other duties of the department include: ensuring that codes of conducts and companyÃ¢â¬â¢s regulations are adhered to by employees, providing a working environment that ensures the workers safety as well as a discrimination free atmosphere and ensuring quality performances by employees among others (McNamara, n.d., p. 1). The recruitment and selection process involves the sourcing and subsequent selection of candidates to be absorbed by a firm. It is an important process in the organization as it seeks to find out the person who can best fit into the need of the company. As Elearn (2009) expressed, Ã¢â¬Å"if the wrong person is appointed, it can affect team workÃ¢â¬ (Elearn, 2009, p. 1979). A team player is important in motivating co-workers in order to boost productivity. Failure to get this kind of employee during th e selection process can mean a reduced efficiency and productivity. It is the duty of the human resource management to analyze the necessity of the vacancy so as to obtain the best candidate for the job. The competent candidate who can build team work will be a key to achieving collective advantage in the organization (Elearn, 2009, p. 1979).Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Training and seminars often yield benefits to the trained employees and the organization as well. One of the effects of training on an employee is the satisfaction derived from using the newly acquired skills. After the training, the employee will want to exercise the newly acquired skills. The eagerness, in its own merit, will enhance the performance of workers in terms of output. The benefits of training also include employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ performance. The concepts learnt during trainings normally have the e ffects of improving the work efficiency of the trained personnel. This has a net effect of improved individual productivity of the workers which translates to the corporate output of the organization. Buckley and Caple (2007) argued that trainings help institutions to meeting their goals. Further trainings on leadership which is the key to team work and developments, are on the other hand key collective achievements in the organization. Training therefore is critical in development of aspects of operations of an organization (Buckley and Caple, 2007, P. 9). When employees are trained, they gain some sort of security at the workplace that instills in them some level of satisfaction. Their satisfaction then translates to efficiency and dedication in their work processes. The overall result is an improved way of handling and maintains the equipments and machinery of the institution. This will also ensure that quality is improved in the firm as well as reduced chances of accidents. Trai ning is therefore a very important aspect in improving the productivity of the firm at both individual and corporate levels. The main aim is however to improve the collective capacity of the institution (Singla, 2010, P. 13). Retention of employees in the firm is another aspect of the human resource management that ensures achievement of objectives. According to Taylor (2010), the retention of employees involves measures that will make the employees feel part of the firms. For the employees to own the company they are working they must have confidence in it. The retention of employees can be achieved in a number of ways. One of the strategies of retention is to take into consideration the views and feeling of the employees. TailorÃ¢â¬â¢s case study (2010) on employee turnover rate indicates that enlisting the opinions of the workers is one of the ways to keep them satisfied at the firm (Tailor, 2010). Flexible working conditions are other techniques of reducing the social strain o n workers. The flexible advantages include leaves, paid or unpaid, which helps workers to improve the balance between work and social responsibilities at home. Promoting employees is another way of retaining workers.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Aspects and Activities of the Human Resource Management specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is a technique that an organization can use to source for personnel from inside the organization. This involves an organization molding its existing workers and taking them up the management ladder instead of recruiting for such positions externally. One of the implied advantages to this practice is that the administration will comprise of a class of individuals who have been at the firm for a considerable duration of time. This class therefore understands the mechanism of the firm and its employees. A more effective management and administration will therefore be establi shed faster than when a new manager or administrator was to be sourced from outside. The cohesion established by retention of employees is also a source of motivation and security that enhances the workerÃ¢â¬â¢s performances (Taylor, 2002, p. 3). Mobility of employees also has a financial implication on an organization. There will be a cost of recruiting and selecting people to replace the lost employees. There could be another risk of losing good employees who could at times be irreplaceable. According to the Manager (2010), the cost of employee turnover is significantly higher than the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s remunerations, approximately fifty percent higher (Manager, 2010, p. 1). Brandau Karla (2010) also describes retention leadership as a new tool that is Ã¢â¬Å"reemerging in the executive arsenal with powerful implications for driving business successÃ¢â¬ (Brandau, 2010, p. 1). Techniques should therefore be put in place by the human resource management to ensure that employee retention is a core value to be embraced by an organization. The retention can be achieved by offering lucrative conditions to the employees or by establishing the need for intention during contract signing (Brandau, 2010, p. 1). The productivity of an organization can also be achieved through promotions. The promotions can be in terms of positions at the organization or incentives offered to employees based on performance. Many organizations offer outstanding motivational packages to top performing employees. It is often viewed as an appreciation to the particular employee for the good performance. The promotions that could include trips and even material offers are also meant to trigger other workers to excellent performance so that they can also achieve the promotions. This type of promotion is characteristic of service providing companies in which the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s efforts can be directly traced to the product. Dewan and Sudarshan (1996) expressed the view that such promotio ns are also meant to show the employees that their contribution to the organization is Ã¢â¬Å"important and appreciatedÃ¢â¬ (Dewan and Sudarshan, 1996, p. 1). This can arguably build confidence and motivation among the rewarded as well as the others who would then aspire to be rewarded. The end result will be good performance by the employees on the ground of motivation and willingness, a move that will improve productivity of the organization (Dewan and Sudarshan, 1996, p. 22). Nyambegera (2005) on the other hand discussed the importance of structural promotion with respect to the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s structural levels.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Nyambegera (2005) argued that a vacancy in a company can be filled by either sourcing a new employee from outside the firm or by promoting an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s existing worker into the vacancy. He further argued that an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s existing employees are Ã¢â¬Å"familiar and comfortable with the people, procedures, policies, and special characteristics of the organizationÃ¢â¬ (Nyambegera, 2005, p. 124). The resources that would be spent in the recruiting and selection process, in terms of finances and time, can be saved for other activities of the organization. Promotion, rather than sourcing an employee from outside the firm also reduces the risks of employing an incompetent person. According to NyambegeraÃ¢â¬â¢s (2005) argument, the management having had employees over their period of existence at the firm will be in a position to judge from the past performances of each employee to determine their capability to fill the new position. The recruitment of a new emp loyee however relies on representations of competence that remains to be proved if the applicant is given the opportunity to work for the company. This involves a risk of believing the applicantÃ¢â¬â¢s credentials and hoping that the applicant performs as good as his or her credentials represents him or her (Nyambegera, 2005, p. 124). There is a need to ensure that all workers meet the requirements of the organization. The rules and regulations include external policies and the institutionÃ¢â¬â¢s established guidelines that safeguards coexistence of workers as well as the codes of ethics and conducts of the institution. Some of the regulations are instituted by a company to prevent acts that are deemed harmful or offensive to other workers. Some of the regulations are on the other hand implied by national regulations like the occupational safety and health act while others are internally instituted to ensure safety and good working environment. The ensured conducive and safe wor king environment is a motivation to the employee as the employee experience the care and responsibility of the company over the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s life and welfare. The good state of a company can also enhance the effectiveness and productivity of the individual workers and the company as a whole (Panszczyk, Kennedy and Turan, 2004, p. 317). Kennedy, Schulz and Robert (2005) also expressed the need for compliance to rules and regulations by employees. In view of the authors argument, Ã¢â¬Å"compliance with laws and regulations is a necessary corporate motivatorÃ¢â¬ (Kennedy, Schulz and Robert, 2005, p. 11). Further measures are also required to instill values of integrity which all employees must be subject to. Compliance and commitment to regulations increases accountability both at employee level as well as the corporate level of the organization (Kennedy, Schulz and Robert, 2005, p. 11). Compliance to national legislations could as well save a firm from mistakes that can lock o ut some talented and skilled candidates for employment. An organization recruitment plan that could otherwise be discriminative in the short run basis could lock out people who might be the best talent that the company ever wanted. Legislations however try to protect citizens against such discrimination and the employment process is not an exception to these regulations. A companyÃ¢â¬â¢s compliance with these anti-discriminatory policies gives it a wider range of sourcing for workers and this increased range, by mathematical concept, increases chances of getting the best of employees. The discriminations could be due to age, sex or even race (Buckley, 2008, p. 5). To obtain at least reasonable output form employees, the organization that has employed the human resource must ensure that these resources are given an environment that will promote their working processes. Most of the conditions to this work friendly environment are requirements subject to human rights adherence. An em ploying organization through its human resource management must ensure that its workers are in a safe and healthy environment. The safety and health conditions at workplaces are critically important especially in construction and chemical related industries. The measures like preventing falls from high levels in a building construction sites and preventing leaks in a chemical manufacturing companies among others eliminates fears among workers as they carry out their activities. The fear of unsafe and unhealthy working conditions have the effects of scaring away workers or subjecting the workers to extra caution that could even draw their concentration away from working to taking care of the risks that could endanger their lives. Other measures, according to Schneeman (2000) that the human resource management looks into in regard to work environment include: Ã¢â¬Å"fair employment practices, environmental protection and practices, compliance with laws and maintaining thorough leaders hip at all levels of the organizationÃ¢â¬ (Schneeman, 2000, p. 201). Peggy (2009) upon research noted that employees are keen on issues such as: equity in the provision of remunerations and motivational rewards, provision of a healthy and safe working environment, establishment of a workplace that is accommodative with respect to social and family issues, attention to the needs of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s employees and communication of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s plans and intentions among others. These issues, depending on an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s human resource managementÃ¢â¬â¢s approach in tackling them, have a direct effect to the attitude developed by employees towards the management in general. The developed attitude consequently will determine the productivity and efficiency of the individual employees and the organization as a body (Peggy, 2009, p. 73). Fernando (2009) identified human resource as perishable substance. According to Fernando (2009), the responsibility of preserving this perishable item rests on the management of the organization. The human resource department should make sure that the employees are well taken care of so that the labor that they offer is not lost due to discouragements and lack of motivational innovations. Issues such as Ã¢â¬Å"equal opportunities, encouragement of whistle blowing, humane treatment of employees, employee empowerment, participative and collaborative environmentÃ¢â¬ (Fernando, 2009, p. 63) among others affect labor output of employees. The administration therefore influences the employee productivity depending on how it handles such matters (Fernando, 2009, p. 64). Once the human resource has been recruited, selected, oriented and finally trained and molded into the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations, the task that remains is to maintain the employee at his or her peak of performance. The management of performance at this level takes into consideration both an individual employee as well as the imme diate team or group that the employee works in and finally the general organization. This management should be strategic to explore issues from a wider perspective with focus on long term goals. The performance management should: be inclusive of various departments and levels of management, focus on sustaining the performance and even improving the performance, and develop the capacities of the employees and to build on behavioral practices (Sharma, 2009, p. 213; Singla, 2010). According to Bohlander and Snell (2009), it is important for the human resource management to understand what its staff is going through during the period of development. This is specifically important to help employees not lap back from their achieved high performance levels. An achieved high performance level should be monitored over time and matters that arise relating to the performance level addressed. The monitoring process should establish among others things: the existence of team work, availability o f empowerment to the employees, success derived from training sessions and fair treatment of employees in the course of their duty (Bohlander and Snell, 2009, p. 730). PasmoreÃ¢â¬â¢s research on performance (2010) indicated that even facilities that acquired a high performance level were liable to losing their performance efficiency. The loss of performance of the machinery can also translate to reduced performance levels of the employees. The loss of efficiency in the machinery can also be used to understand the fact that human beings can as well be trained to a level of performance and still lose it and experience inefficiency (Pasmore, 2010, p. 84). Conclusion In view of the above discussion, which has been exploring the aspects and activities of the human resource management, it is evident that this branch of management is very influential in the operation of an organization. Its processes like selecting, training and sustaining employees directly contributes to the individual performance of the employees which is then translated into team performance and finally the productivity of an organization. Due to the interdependence of departments of every organization and the fact that a large number of processes in every organization require human attention, directly or indirectly, the management of these employees is a very important determinant in the overall operation of each organization. It can therefore be concluded that the management of the human resource is core to achieving competitive advantage of business entities. References Bohlander, G. and Snell, S. (2009) Managing Human Resources. Canada: Cengage Learning. Brandau, K. (2010) Retention leadership. Web. Buckley, F. (2008) Equal Employment Opportunity Compliance Guide. New York: Aspen Publishers. Buckley, R. and Caple, J. (2007) The Theory and Practice of Training. London: Kogan Page Publishers. Dewan, M. and Sudarshan, N. (1996) Promotion management. New Delhi: Discovery publishing house. Elear n, D. (2009) Recruitment and Selection. Burlington: Elsevier. Fernando, C. (2009) Corporate Governance: Principles, Policies and Practices. India: Pearson Education India. Kennedy, d., Schulz, B. and Robert, S. (2005) Corporate integrity: a toolkit for managing beyond compliance. San Francisco: John Wiley and Sons. Manager. (2010) Human Resources Management Ã¢â¬â Employee Retention. Web. McNamara, C. (n.d.) All About Human Resources and Talent Management. Web. Nyambegera, S. (2005) Human resource management, A biblical perspective. Nairobi: Uzima publishing house. Panszczyk, L., Kennedy, D. and Turan, T. (2004) US master employee benefits guide. New York: CCH Incorporated. Pasmore, W. (2010) Research in Organizational Change and Development. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing. Peggy, C. (2009) Looking beyond profit: small shareholders and the values imperative. Farnham: Gower Publishing. Schneeman, A. (2000) Paralegal ethics. New York: Cengage Learning. Sharma, K. (2009) Handbook Of HRM Practices: Management Policies and Practices. New Delhi, India: Global India Publications. Singla, K. (2010) Business management. New Delhi: FK Publishers. Tailor, S. (2002) The employee retention handbook. London: CIPD Publishing. This essay on The Aspects and Activities of the Human Resource Management was written and submitted by user Maxton V. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
Important School Tips for Parents From a Principal For teachers, parents can be your worst enemy or your best friend.Ã Over the course of the last decade, I have worked with a handful of the most difficult parents, as well as many of the best parents. I believe that the majority of parents do a terrific job and genuinely try their best. The truth is that being a parent is not easy. We make mistakes, and there is no way we can be good at everything. Sometimes as a parent it is critical to rely on and seek advice from experts in certain areas. As a principal, I would like to offer a few school tips for parents that I believe every educator would want them to know, and that will also benefit their children. 1. Be Supportive Any teacher will tell you that if a childÃ¢â¬â¢s parent is supportive that they will gladly work through any issues that might arise over the course of the school year. Teachers are human, and there is a chance they will make a mistake. However, despite perception, most teachers are dedicated professionals who do a terrific job day in and day out. It is unrealistic to think that there are not bad teachers out there, but most are exceptionally skilled at what they do. If your child does have a lousy teacher, please donÃ¢â¬â¢t judge the next teacher based on the previous, and voice your concerns about that teacher to the principal. If your child has an excellent teacher, then make sure that the teacher knows how you feel about them and also let the principal know. Voice your support not only of the teacher but of the school as a whole. 2. Be Involved and Stay Involved One of the most frustrating trends in schools is how the level of parental involvement decreases as a childÃ¢â¬â¢s age increases. It is an extremely discouraging fact because children of all ages would benefit if their parents would stay involved. While it is certain that the first few years of school are arguably the most important, the other years are important as well. Children are smart and intuitive. When they see their parents taking a step back in their involvement, it sends the wrong message. Most children will start to slack off too. It is a sad reality that many middle school and high school parent/teacher conferences have an exceedingly small turnout. The ones who do show up are the ones that teachers often say donÃ¢â¬â¢t need to, but the correlation to their childÃ¢â¬â¢s success and their continued involvement in their childÃ¢â¬â¢s education is no mistake. Every parent should know what is going on in their childÃ¢â¬â¢s daily school life. A parent should do the following things every day: Ask your child how their school day went. Engage in conversation about what they learned, whom their friends are, what they had for lunch, etc.Make sure your child has time set aside to complete homework. Be there to answer any questions or assist when needed.Read all notes/memos sent home from the school and/or teacher. Notes are the primary form of communications between a teacher and parents. Look for them and read them to stay up-to-date on events.Contact your childÃ¢â¬â¢s teacher immediately if you have any concerns.Value your childÃ¢â¬â¢s education and express the importance of it every single day. This is arguably the single most valuable thing a parent can do when it comes to their childÃ¢â¬â¢s education. Those that value education often thrives and those that donÃ¢â¬â¢t often fail. 3. Do Not Bad-Mouth the Teacher in Front of Your Child Nothing undermines the authority of a teacher any faster than when a parent continuously bashes them or talks bad about them in front of their child. There are times when you are going to be upset with a teacher, but your child should never know exactly how you feel. It will interfere with their education. If you vocally and adamantly disrespect the teacher, then your child will likely mirror you. Keep your personal feelings about the teacher between yourself, the school administration, and the teacher. 4. Follow Through As an administrator, I cannot tell you how many times I have dealt with a student discipline issue where the parent will come in tremendously supportive and apologetic about their childÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior. They often tell you that they are going to ground their child and discipline them at home on top of the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s punishment. However, when you inquire with the student the next day, they tell you that nothing was done. Children need structure and discipline and most crave it on some level. If your child makes a mistake, then there should be consequences at school and at home. This will show the child that both the parent and school are on the same page and that they are not going to be allowed to get away with that behavior. However, if you do not have any intent on following through on your end, then do not promise to take care of it at home. When you practice this behavior, it sends an underlying message that the child can make a mistake, but in the end, there is not going to be a punishment. Follow through with your threats. 5. Do Not Take Your ChildÃ¢â¬â¢s Word for the Truth If your child came home from school and told you that their teacher threw a box of Kleenexes at them, how would you handle it? Would you instantly assume that they are telling the truth?Would you call or meet the principal and demand that the teacher be removed?Would you aggressively approach the teacher and make accusations?Would you call and request a meeting with the teacher to ask them calmly if they could explain what happened? If you are a parent who chooses anything other than 4, then your choice is the worst kind of a slap in the face to an educator. Parents who take their childÃ¢â¬â¢s word over an adult before consulting with the adult challenge their authority. While it is entirely possible that the child is telling the truth, the teacher should be given the right to explain their side without being viciously attacked first. Too many times, children leave out crucial facts, when explaining situations like this to their parent. Children are often devious by nature, and if there is a chance they can get their teacher in trouble, then they will go for it. Parents and teachers who stay on the same page and work together alleviate this opportunity for assumptions and misconceptions because the child knows they wonÃ¢â¬â¢t get away with it. 6. Do Not Make Excuses for Your Child Help us hold your child accountable. If your child makes a mistake, donÃ¢â¬â¢t bail them out by constantly making excuses for them. From time to time, there are legitimate excuses, but if you are constantly making excuses for your child, then you are not doing them any favors. You wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be able to make excuses for them their whole life, so donÃ¢â¬â¢t let them get into that habit. If they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t do their homework, donÃ¢â¬â¢t call the teacher and say it was your fault because you took them to a ball game. If they get in trouble for hitting another student, donÃ¢â¬â¢t make the excuse that they learned that behavior from an older sibling. Stand firm with the school and teach them a life lesson that could prevent them from making bigger mistakes later on.
Friday, November 22, 2019
Indus Civilization Timeline and Description The Indus civilization (also known as the Harappan Civilization, the Indus-Sarasvati or Hakra Civilization and sometimes the Indus Valley Civilization) is one of the oldest societies we know of, including over 2600 known archaeological sites located along the Indus and Sarasvati rivers in Pakistan and India, an area of some 1.6 million square kilometers. The largest known Harappan site is Ganweriwala, located on the bank of the Sarasvati river. Timeline of the Indus Civilization Important sites are listed after each phase. Chalcolithic cultures 4300-3200 BCEarly Harappan 3500-2700 BC (Mohenjo-Daro, Mehrgarh, Jodhpura, Padri)Early Harappan/Mature Harappan Transition 2800-2700 BC (Kumal, Nausharo, Kot Diji, Nari)Mature Harappan 2700-1900 BC (Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro, Shortgua, Lothal, Nari)Late Harappan 1900-1500 BC (Lothal, Bet Dwarka) The earliest settlements of the Harappans were in Baluchistan, Pakistan, beginning about 3500 BC. These sites are an independent outgrowth of Chalcolithic cultures in place in south Asia between 3800-3500 BC. Early Harappan sites built mud brick houses, and carried on long-distance trade.The Mature Harappan sites are located along the Indus and Sarasvati rivers and their tributaries. They lived in planned communities of houses built of mud brick, burnt brick, and chiseled stone. Citadels were built at sites such as Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro, Dholavira and Ropar, with carved stone gateways and fortification walls. Around the citadels were an extensive range of water reservoirs. Trade with Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Persian gulf is in evidence between 2700-1900 BC. Indus Lifestyles Mature Harappan society had three classes, including a religious elite, a trading class class and the poor workers. Art of the Harappan includes bronze figures of men, women, animals, birds and toys cast with the lost was method. Terracotta figurines are rarer, but are known from some sites, as is shell, bone, semiprecious and clay jewelry.Seals carved from steatite squares contain the earliest forms of writing. Almost 6000 inscriptions have been found to date, although they have yet to be deciphered. Scholars are divided about whether the language is likely a form of Proto-Dravidian, Proto-Brahmi or Sanskrit. Early burials were primarily extended with grave goods; later burials were varied. Subsistence and Industry The earliest pottery made in the Harappan region was built beginning about 6000 BC, and included storage jars, perforated cylindrical towers and footed dishes. The copper/bronze industry flourished at sites such as Harappa and Lothal, and copper casting and hammering were used. Shell and bead making industry was very important, particularly at sites such as Chanhu-daro where mass production of beads and seals is in evidence.The Harappan people grew wheat, barley, rice, ragi, jowar, and cotton, and raised cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats and chickens. Camels, elephants, horses, and asses were used as transport. Late Harappan The Harappan civilization ended between about 2000 and 1900 BC, resulting from a combination of environmental factors such as flooding and climatic changes, tectonic activity, and the decline of trade with western societies.Ã Indus Civilization Research Archaeologists associated with the Indus Valley Civilizations include R.D. Banerji, John Marshall, N. Dikshit, Daya Ram Sahni, Madho Sarup Vats, Mortimer Wheeler. More recent work has been conducted by B.B. Lal, S.R. Rao, M.K. Dhavalikar, G.L. Possehl, J. F. Jarrige, Jonathon Mark Kenoyer, and Deo Prakash Sharma, among many others at the National Museum in New Delhi. Important Harappan Sites Ganweriwala, Rakhigarhi, Dhalewan, Mohenjo-Daro, Dholavira, Harappa, Nausharo, Kot Diji, and Mehrgarh, Padri. Sources An excellent source for detailed information of the Indus civilization and with lots of photographs is Harappa.com. For information on the Indus Script and Sanskrit, see Ancient Writing of India and Asia. Archaeological sites (both on About.com and elsewhere are compiled in Archaeological Sites of the Indus Civilization. A brief Bibliography of the Indus Civilization has also been compiled.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Brand Benefit Ladder - Essay Example At the apex lies the essence of the brand, which is also an implication of the emotional benefit. The focus keeps increasing in concentration as ladder rises. Ascending the ladder reduces the focus on the lower attachments such as the attributes associated with the brand while increasing the function of the brand in the lives of consumers. Unearthing why the mother of a football player drives an SUV instead of a simple mini-van clearly illustrates the flow of the ladder. At first, an analyst considers the attribute of the product (car) for instance, SUVÃ¢â¬â¢s do not have doors that slide. It means that an SUV is stylish because of the attribute, therefore; it constitutes a functional consequence of the absence of sliding doors. When the Mom feels trendy while driving, it amounts to the emotional or psychosocial consequence of owning a car with a stylish design. In the end, the bottom-line is the personal value where people, as well as the owner, accept the act of feeling fashionab le. Marketing experts define a brand as a set of memories, expectations, relationships, and stories that, taken together, explain a decision by a consumer to select one service or product over another. A brand differentiates services, products, as well as organizations (Barsalou 640). Milward Brown developed the most common type of Brand Pyramid towards the end of the twentieth century. The pyramid identifies five important stages traversed by a consumer when analyzing a brand. The process starts with primary awareness and ends with total loyalty. Business organizations can apply the Brand Pyramid when in the process of designing a marketing strategy. The strategy could be for a product, a brand, or a service. Comprehending the five steps traveled by the consumer forms the best foundation for designing the marketing strategies. The steps are essential as they help the consumer build loyalty on a particular product or brand.
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Operations and Quality Improvement Strategies - Coursework Example Organizations can apply a set of skills and tools to reduce operational cost, increase efficiency and productivity, and improve the quality of their processes, products and services. 1. Lean Manufacturing. Critically discuss the differences, using examples, between the Lean and Mass (Traditional) Production strategies. A. Rationale: Lean Manufacturing, a Japanese philosophy, gained attention at the beginning of the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s when the western leaders could not stop wondering the inimitable industrial advances and permanent employment of the Japanese businesses (A to Z Management Concepts and Models 2007). It has been described as Ã¢â¬Å"the most fundamental change to occur since mass production was brought to full development by Henry Ford early in the 20th centuryÃ¢â¬ (Hindle 2008). Lean manufacturing has been established as one of the crucial factors for Japanese success. There are two basic concepts that are involved here: making the management work to give lower cost per un it produced which directly enhances productivity, secondly, striving for continuous improvement (kaizen). Workers are expected and encouraged to adopt a new approach to their work and reap the benefit of it (A to Z Management Concepts and Models 2007). Generally, in lean production systems employees are organized in teams and each worker must be able to do all the tasks required of the team. Ã¢â¬Å"These tasks are less narrowly specialised than those demanded of the worker in a mass-production system, and this variety enables the worker to escape from the soul-destroying repetition of the pure assembly lineÃ¢â¬ (Hindle 2008) B. Evolution: In 1776, Adam Smith in the Wealth of Nations described that mass production is based on the principles of specialization and division of labour. To design products and to set up production systems highly skilled labours are used whereas to produce standardized components and assemble them the labours used are highly unskilled. The latter are dis posable and can be laid off depending on the situation. In mass production, parts used are often manufactured elsewhere and then put together on a moving production facility called assembly line. Ã¢â¬Å"The result is a standardized product made in a fairly small number of varieties, produced at low cost and of mediocre quality.Ã¢â¬ If a problem needs to be corrected at any point in an assembly line the entire process stops (Hindle 2008). Lean production system requires the components to be delivered just-in-time and each worker is allowed to stop production when a fault is discovered. This is the basic difference from classic assembly line process where stoppages are expensive and should be avoided at all costs. With a mass production system the worker learn nothing because all the faulty products are put aside to be dealt with later. They are replaced immediately, from the large stock of spares, without causing any hold-ups. In case of lean production, problems are immediately r esolved when a stoppage occurs and gradually this diminishes the number of stoppages. Eventually, a mature lean-production line stops a much lesser number of times than a mature mass-production assembly line (A to Z Management Concepts and Models 2007). Yet another advantage of lean production is that designers, workers and suppliers work hand-in-hand with production which never happens in a mass-production system. A separate team of insiders or specialists participate in designing which
Saturday, November 16, 2019
San Diego Zoo Essay 1. Do you think the San Diego ZooÃ¢â¬â¢s old appraisal system needed to be changed? I think it needed to be changed because before they werenÃ¢â¬â¢t taking it seriously and it was a low priority to them. Now with the new system the employees will get raises depending on their performance which in turn will increase company performance. 2. What do you think are the pros and cons of using a Web-based appraisal system? The pros of using a web-based appraisal system is that it is convenient because a large group of people can be rated in less time and it will control personal bias. The cons of using a web-based appraisal system is that it gives too little attention to the overall performance of workers and in person interviews are more effective in rewarding or pointing out deficiencies in workers. 3. How do you the new appraisal system will affect employees and the types of employees who work at the zoo? The new appraisal system will affect employees positively for those employees that are looking to grow with the company and be a part of the growth. When an employee is given targets and goals to reach, then they know what they are working towards and they are aware that if they reach the targets and goals there is a gain for them at the end. With this set, you will get employees that are willing to do the work and the time to get a job done right.