Tuesday, December 24, 2019

Don’t Get Burned Out Essay - 822 Words

Don’t Get Burned nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; Burnout. It happens to everyone, everywhere, everyday. Athletes -young, old, professional, amateur, male and female- all experience burnout in different forms and degrees. Burnout is defined as the physical, emotional, and psychological reaction to intense pressure to fulfill obligations, whether they be sports or otherwise. Simply put, people get tired and worn out because they often take on the responsibility of doing too much. Burnout is most common among professional and Olympic athletes that train hard and work hard for long periods of time. However, others can also experience burnout in athletics. Burnout leads to reduced interest in the sport, quality of performance, and then†¦show more content†¦Smith’s Cognitive-Affective model of burnout has for stages that lead to burnout. Investment model of burnout insists that if an athlete participates in sports based on enjoyment, burnout is less likely to occur. On the other hand, if an athlete is trapped into partici pation this will lead to burnout. Empowerment model of burnout suggests that stress is not the cause but merely a symptom of burnout. This theory in particular deals mainly with youths in sports. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Burnout normally occurs slowly, over a long period of time. It may express itself physically or mentally. Physical symptoms may include feelings of intense fatigue, changes in heart rate, weight, blood pressure, vulnerability to viral infection, and then immune breakdown. Mental burnout may manifest itself with feelings of lack of control over commitments, belief that you are accomplishing less, tendency to think negatively, loss of a sense of purpose and increasing detachment to situations that cause stress. In some cases, burnout can lead to a decreased self-esteem. Keeping the sport and activities fun can help prevent burnout from setting in. If athletes are in danger of burning out they can re-evaluate their goals and prioritize them, reduce unnecessary commitments, learn stress management techniques, following a healthy lifestyle, and developing a support network among friends and family. Interventions can sometimes provide a solution.Show MoreRelatedBiomass Energy: Renewable Resources754 Words   |  3 PagesRenewable Energy Biomass is the energy we get from plants and animals that have died. It is organic material made from microorganisms containing stored energy from a process called photosynthesis. When photosynthesis occurs, plants take in sunlight with carbon dioxide and water, and then release glucose, which the plant uses for food and oxygen, which is the air that we breathe. Then sooner of later the plant will either die or get eaten. When it is eaten, the energy from the plant is passedRead MoreFirewood the Burns the Hottest and the Longest Essay1172 Words   |  5 Pagesmuch less dense. They do not burn as long and don’t have as much heat output. Softwoods also tend to be more resinous and pop more, giving off sparks and making more smoke (http://www.firepit-and-grilling-guru.com/best-firewood.html). However they are much easier to chop and also ignite much faster, and therefore can be good as a starter wood to get your fire going. Softwoods are great if you want a quick warming fi re or short fire that will burn out before you go to bed. There are three elementsRead MoreThe World War II Germany1387 Words   |  6 Pagesfront hood of the car also. They new that is was the The National Socialist German Workers Party or the (Nazi Party). They where good people just trying to get Germany out of debt and get them in a good economy. The man running for president was Adolf Hitler and he was a smart guy. All of his plans where going to help Germany with debt and get them to be a great country. Then a year later in 1929, July 29 Adolf Hitler becomes the leader of the Nazi Party. So Adolf becomes the leader of the NaziRead MoreBurning Up by Caroline B. Cooney Essay804 Words   |  4 PagesPlot:nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Macey Clare is a 15 year old girl who’s parents are never home so she stays with her grandparents on the weekdays, and on the weekends that her parents come home from work all week, she stays with them. Macey gets involved with a Saturday group, where they go and paint a church in a bad part of the neighborhood. While they paint at the black church, an arson walks by smoking, and seeing the open cans of paint and turpentine, throws a match into the church. SettingRead MoreEssay on The History of Prejudice and Discrimination 942 Words   |  4 Pagespeople. Discrimination is an awful thing that has been around since the beginning of time. It can be a dangerous thing because it can cause problems for example Hitler discriminating against the Jews and getting millions of people to hate them. I don’t think discrimination will be gone completely but there are some ways for it to be slowed down and/or reduced. There are many things that can cause people to be prejudice or discriminate against another group. The people you hang around, yourRead MoreAnalysis Of The Poem Barn Burning 1617 Words   |  7 Pageswent back to Japan with her rich boyfriend after staying in Thuis for three months. When three people had a small party, the boyfriend told the narrator he burned many barns in the past and would burn a barn near the narrator’s house. After investigation, the narrator didn’t find any barns disappeared, although the boyfriend told him he indeed burned a barn. In the end, the woman disappeared. There are a few questions. Is there any underlying meaning of the barns? What did the boyfriend mean by burningRead MoreThe Chicago Riots Act Of Violence And Destruction1550 Words   |  7 PagesBaltimore Mayor Stephanie Rawlings-Blake also seemed disheartened. â€Å"We worked so hard to get a company like CVS to invest in this neighborhood,† she said, â€Å"this is the only place that so many people have to pick up their prescriptions.† Why would anyone burn down the only CVS in their neighborhood? The main reason, I purpose, is most likely the same reason that poor people in these cities across the country burned â€Å"their own† neighborhoods in the late 1960s: They did not experience those places as theirRead MoreEssay about Fahrenheit 451 as a Criticism of Censorship943 Words   |  4 Pagesfor he would surely be censored, Bradbury writes about an exaggerated version of his own government in which books are burned along with the houses that harbors them. This is to demonstrate to the readers how letting the government censor their art could lead to more drastic measures. Such as editing one line in a book; then a page; then the whole book is condemned and burned along side the many other books and ideas that do not agree with the government. This then leads to the eventual condemnationRead MoreSummary Of The Short Story Confession728 Words   |  3 Pagesto keep the Protectors secret so no one finds out its them. Then again, when they concluded to trash and vandalize a different gangs cars for the taste of their own medicine. There are many other themes like seeking revenge could have dangerous outcomes. But my theme is stronger because it shows up three times in the short story rather than two. Furthermore, the burning of the drugs. The author writes on page 104 that the Protectors wanted to get rid of the drugs in the school. So they foundRead MoreTaking a Look at Islamophobia636 Words   |  3 Pagesincrease rapidly. People started to get hurt especially muslims. Islamphobia started long ago in the late 1900 where many muslims were critised because of their religion which is being muslims but when 9/11 incindent happened . many things changed.. 9/11 was an incindent that happened in America where as some people burned and destroyed one of the trade centeres in the us which caused a lot of touble. Everyone thought and suspected that the ones that burned the building were muslims so they started

Monday, December 16, 2019

Laptop Computer vs Desktop Computer Free Essays

The computer is one of the greatest inventions in the world. Nowadays, there are more and more people who have their own computers. However, some people easily get confused when deciding to buy a laptop or a desktop. We will write a custom essay sample on Laptop Computer vs Desktop Computer or any similar topic only for you Order Now It is obvious that both of them can do well at what they are needed for such as working, studying, researching or entertaining, etc. Both consist of the basic parts like main board, ram, VGA card, hard disk, etc. Yet despite these similarities, there are quite a few differences between these two kinds of computer. A laptop offers some advantages that a desktop doesn’t. The first one is the portability. The laptop is light and portable enough to be brought anywhere. In addition, it only needs a small space to put it on. These things are very necessary for the businessmen because their jobs require them to move continuously. It is also vital for the students who want to surf the internet in the coffee shop or the library for researching or entertaining. The most important thing is the laptop uses a battery to work, so it can work for about 3 hours without plugging into the outlet. The laptop is absolutely a good solution if the people want to use the computer while going camping. Yet, the desktop is so big and heavy that the people can’t carry it with them. It is stable and good for the job, which doesn’t need to move. Unfortunately, the desktop can’t work until it is plugged into the outlet. Another advantage of the laptop is the quietness and the coolness. It uses a device called solid-state drive (SSD) to contain data. Therefore, it doesn’t make noise while working. Besides that, it runs quite cool due to the silent cooling fan and doesn’t waste much electricity. In contrast, the desktop makes loud noise when running due to its regular hard drive and fans. Moreover, it runs very hot – almost hot enough to fry an egg. Some people try to add extra cooling fans for their desktop. Unfortunately, this even makes their desktop noisier. The next benefit of the laptop is the convenience. In the laptop, a mouse is replaced with a touchpad, which is a great solution for the portability. The touchpad certainly cannot be dropped. Moreover, the laptop also has a lot of built-in devices such as speakers, microphone, webcam, etc. You can carry all of them easily while moving because all of them are built in. On the other hand, the owner of a desktop has to buy them and plug them into it through a USB port. It is hard to carry all of them when moving to another place. Nevertheless, the laptop also has some disadvantages. In other words, a desktop has some benefits that a laptop doesn’t. For one thing, a desktop is usually cheaper than a laptop, sometimes just half the price of the laptop. Because of the conveniences of the laptop, the customers are willing to pay extra money for them. The second advantage of the desktop is the compatibility to work. It is believed that the desktop can work better that the laptop. It is really powerful; most tasks can be accomplished in a short time. Its monitor is great to design images, watch DVDs or play games with a large screen, high resolution, and short delay time. Furthermore, a professional video editor often chooses a desktop as a tool for his or her work because of its strength. On the contrary, the laptop is not good to watch DVDs or play games because of its small screen. Gazing at the laptop’s screen for long periods may harm the viewer’s eyes. In addition, many people complain that it is difficult to type with the small keyboard of the laptop. In fact, this problem appears with the laptops whose monitors are smaller than 13†. The users need to practice typing on these small keyboards before working with these laptops. The third benefit of desktop computers is the ability to upgrade. Upgrading a desktop is very simple; anyone can learn to do it by himself, but for the laptop, it is much harder. The desktop can be added and modified as the user pleases. However, the laptop’s users need an expert to help them upgrade it. For that reason, the desktop’s speed can be unlimited, but the laptop’s can’t. The final advantage is the durability. The desktop is very durable; it can work for more than 10 years if it is kept in a good environment. Unfortunately, the laptop is fragile when being dropped. When it is broken, people will probably buy a new one. Based on the differences of these computers, the users can determine which one is better for them depending on their purposes. If they are the white-collar workers or the students who need the computers for their work or study, a small convenient laptop is the best choice for them. On the other hand, if they need the computers for their families or their works relating to graphic design, video editing, or playing hard-core games, a powerful desktop is likely a great choice. How to cite Laptop Computer vs Desktop Computer, Essay examples

Sunday, December 8, 2019

The Utility of Equity Theory-Free-Samples-Myassignmenthelp.com

Question: Jane and Connie are neighbours who both work as purchasing managers in different companies in the petrochemical industry. During one neighbourly discussion, Jane learned that Connie's salary was nearly 15 per cent higher than hers even though their job duties were similar. Other than this difference, both received similar benefits and seemed to enjoy their jobs and colleagues. Jane was upset about Connie's higher salary, although she did her best to hide her emotions from Connie. After all, it wasn't Connie's fault that they received different salary levels. Jane was frustrated not only because Connie received a significantly higher salary, but also because she was certain that she worked longer hours and was more productive than Connie. According to equity theory research, what will Jane probably do to reduce her upset feelings? Answer: Equity theory is focuses on the fact that the persons are motivated by the concept of equality and in case they discover certain inequities in either the input or the yield ratios of themselves and their referent groups they are bound to adjust their input, to reach the professed amount of equity. The higher an individuals conecption of equity, the more motivated an individual will be. It is natural for a person to be de-motivated in case he or she finds that there is an existent unfair environment (Al-Zawahreh Al-Madi, 2012). The most common situations or scenarios where the equity theory approach is found is when employees compare the payments which they receive from their offices and what their friends receive from theirs. In case there are disparities in the salaries in the same post in different companies, there is bound to be a de-motivated feeling. In these situations the people compare their own effort-to-compensation ratio and lose their motivation in the procedure (Al-Zawahreh Al-Madi, 2012). In the given case study, which tells the story of two neighbours, Connie and Jane, despite working as professionals in the same genre, they received salaries which were quite different. Connie received 15% higher salary in comparison to Jane. Connie was frustrated and felt bad that despite being a much more efficient employee her salary was considerably less. It is desirable for employees to report the instances of favouritism and disparities in the compensation to their managers to avoid such problems from the start (Kwon Jang, 2012). References: Al-Zawahreh, A., Al-Madi, F. (2012). The utility of equity theory in enhancing organizational effectiveness.European journal of economics, finance and administrative sciences,46, 158-170. Kwon, S., Jang, S. S. (2012). Effects of compensation for service recovery: From the equity theory perspective.International Journal of Hospitality Management,31(4), 1235-1243.

Saturday, November 30, 2019

The Aspects and Activities of the Human Resource Management

Introduction Human resource management is a branch of management which deals with matters that are related to employees of an organization. It covers areas that include the hiring process, development of workers, and safety of the workers, training and motivation among others. It can also be seen as the process of organizing and supervising processes that relate to employees of a firm.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Aspects and Activities of the Human Resource Management specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It entails gaining the confidence of the employee as well as providing favorable environments for efficient output of the employees. The processes of ensuring efficiency of the employee could include training, motivation and enhanced communication among employees at different level of the organization’s structure. This paper seeks to explore and show that how an organization manages the human resources is fundamental to the goal of achieving collective efficiency. The paper will explore the aspects of human resource management with the aim of establishing whether or not human resource management is a fundamental to achieving collective competitive advantage. The paper will therefore in detail examine the activities and processes that are normally undertaken in the department of human resource management with respect to ascertaining or otherwise, the validity of the above statement. The department of human resource management has a wide range of activities it offers to its organization. The department for example has the responsibility of ensuring that its organization gets the best of available workforce. Mechanisms are for this matter established to ensure that thorough scrutiny is done on job applicants before they are absorbed into the firm. Also in the department of human resource is the remuneration and rewarding of a firm’s workers according to contracts and policies of the subject company. The department also offers and organizes for trainings and workshops for employees in the bid to enhance their productivity in the firm. Other duties of the department include: ensuring that codes of conducts and company’s regulations are adhered to by employees, providing a working environment that ensures the workers safety as well as a discrimination free atmosphere and ensuring quality performances by employees among others (McNamara, n.d., p. 1). The recruitment and selection process involves the sourcing and subsequent selection of candidates to be absorbed by a firm. It is an important process in the organization as it seeks to find out the person who can best fit into the need of the company. As Elearn (2009) expressed, â€Å"if the wrong person is appointed, it can affect team work† (Elearn, 2009, p. 1979). A team player is important in motivating co-workers in order to boost productivity. Failure to get this kind of employee during th e selection process can mean a reduced efficiency and productivity. It is the duty of the human resource management to analyze the necessity of the vacancy so as to obtain the best candidate for the job. The competent candidate who can build team work will be a key to achieving collective advantage in the organization (Elearn, 2009, p. 1979).Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Training and seminars often yield benefits to the trained employees and the organization as well. One of the effects of training on an employee is the satisfaction derived from using the newly acquired skills. After the training, the employee will want to exercise the newly acquired skills. The eagerness, in its own merit, will enhance the performance of workers in terms of output. The benefits of training also include employees’ performance. The concepts learnt during trainings normally have the e ffects of improving the work efficiency of the trained personnel. This has a net effect of improved individual productivity of the workers which translates to the corporate output of the organization. Buckley and Caple (2007) argued that trainings help institutions to meeting their goals. Further trainings on leadership which is the key to team work and developments, are on the other hand key collective achievements in the organization. Training therefore is critical in development of aspects of operations of an organization (Buckley and Caple, 2007, P. 9). When employees are trained, they gain some sort of security at the workplace that instills in them some level of satisfaction. Their satisfaction then translates to efficiency and dedication in their work processes. The overall result is an improved way of handling and maintains the equipments and machinery of the institution. This will also ensure that quality is improved in the firm as well as reduced chances of accidents. Trai ning is therefore a very important aspect in improving the productivity of the firm at both individual and corporate levels. The main aim is however to improve the collective capacity of the institution (Singla, 2010, P. 13). Retention of employees in the firm is another aspect of the human resource management that ensures achievement of objectives. According to Taylor (2010), the retention of employees involves measures that will make the employees feel part of the firms. For the employees to own the company they are working they must have confidence in it. The retention of employees can be achieved in a number of ways. One of the strategies of retention is to take into consideration the views and feeling of the employees. Tailor’s case study (2010) on employee turnover rate indicates that enlisting the opinions of the workers is one of the ways to keep them satisfied at the firm (Tailor, 2010). Flexible working conditions are other techniques of reducing the social strain o n workers. The flexible advantages include leaves, paid or unpaid, which helps workers to improve the balance between work and social responsibilities at home. Promoting employees is another way of retaining workers.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Aspects and Activities of the Human Resource Management specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is a technique that an organization can use to source for personnel from inside the organization. This involves an organization molding its existing workers and taking them up the management ladder instead of recruiting for such positions externally. One of the implied advantages to this practice is that the administration will comprise of a class of individuals who have been at the firm for a considerable duration of time. This class therefore understands the mechanism of the firm and its employees. A more effective management and administration will therefore be establi shed faster than when a new manager or administrator was to be sourced from outside. The cohesion established by retention of employees is also a source of motivation and security that enhances the worker’s performances (Taylor, 2002, p. 3). Mobility of employees also has a financial implication on an organization. There will be a cost of recruiting and selecting people to replace the lost employees. There could be another risk of losing good employees who could at times be irreplaceable. According to the Manager (2010), the cost of employee turnover is significantly higher than the employee’s remunerations, approximately fifty percent higher (Manager, 2010, p. 1). Brandau Karla (2010) also describes retention leadership as a new tool that is â€Å"reemerging in the executive arsenal with powerful implications for driving business success† (Brandau, 2010, p. 1). Techniques should therefore be put in place by the human resource management to ensure that employee retention is a core value to be embraced by an organization. The retention can be achieved by offering lucrative conditions to the employees or by establishing the need for intention during contract signing (Brandau, 2010, p. 1). The productivity of an organization can also be achieved through promotions. The promotions can be in terms of positions at the organization or incentives offered to employees based on performance. Many organizations offer outstanding motivational packages to top performing employees. It is often viewed as an appreciation to the particular employee for the good performance. The promotions that could include trips and even material offers are also meant to trigger other workers to excellent performance so that they can also achieve the promotions. This type of promotion is characteristic of service providing companies in which the employee’s efforts can be directly traced to the product. Dewan and Sudarshan (1996) expressed the view that such promotio ns are also meant to show the employees that their contribution to the organization is â€Å"important and appreciated† (Dewan and Sudarshan, 1996, p. 1). This can arguably build confidence and motivation among the rewarded as well as the others who would then aspire to be rewarded. The end result will be good performance by the employees on the ground of motivation and willingness, a move that will improve productivity of the organization (Dewan and Sudarshan, 1996, p. 22). Nyambegera (2005) on the other hand discussed the importance of structural promotion with respect to the organization’s structural levels.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Nyambegera (2005) argued that a vacancy in a company can be filled by either sourcing a new employee from outside the firm or by promoting an organization’s existing worker into the vacancy. He further argued that an organization’s existing employees are â€Å"familiar and comfortable with the people, procedures, policies, and special characteristics of the organization† (Nyambegera, 2005, p. 124). The resources that would be spent in the recruiting and selection process, in terms of finances and time, can be saved for other activities of the organization. Promotion, rather than sourcing an employee from outside the firm also reduces the risks of employing an incompetent person. According to Nyambegera’s (2005) argument, the management having had employees over their period of existence at the firm will be in a position to judge from the past performances of each employee to determine their capability to fill the new position. The recruitment of a new emp loyee however relies on representations of competence that remains to be proved if the applicant is given the opportunity to work for the company. This involves a risk of believing the applicant’s credentials and hoping that the applicant performs as good as his or her credentials represents him or her (Nyambegera, 2005, p. 124). There is a need to ensure that all workers meet the requirements of the organization. The rules and regulations include external policies and the institution’s established guidelines that safeguards coexistence of workers as well as the codes of ethics and conducts of the institution. Some of the regulations are instituted by a company to prevent acts that are deemed harmful or offensive to other workers. Some of the regulations are on the other hand implied by national regulations like the occupational safety and health act while others are internally instituted to ensure safety and good working environment. The ensured conducive and safe wor king environment is a motivation to the employee as the employee experience the care and responsibility of the company over the employee’s life and welfare. The good state of a company can also enhance the effectiveness and productivity of the individual workers and the company as a whole (Panszczyk, Kennedy and Turan, 2004, p. 317). Kennedy, Schulz and Robert (2005) also expressed the need for compliance to rules and regulations by employees. In view of the authors argument, â€Å"compliance with laws and regulations is a necessary corporate motivator† (Kennedy, Schulz and Robert, 2005, p. 11). Further measures are also required to instill values of integrity which all employees must be subject to. Compliance and commitment to regulations increases accountability both at employee level as well as the corporate level of the organization (Kennedy, Schulz and Robert, 2005, p. 11). Compliance to national legislations could as well save a firm from mistakes that can lock o ut some talented and skilled candidates for employment. An organization recruitment plan that could otherwise be discriminative in the short run basis could lock out people who might be the best talent that the company ever wanted. Legislations however try to protect citizens against such discrimination and the employment process is not an exception to these regulations. A company’s compliance with these anti-discriminatory policies gives it a wider range of sourcing for workers and this increased range, by mathematical concept, increases chances of getting the best of employees. The discriminations could be due to age, sex or even race (Buckley, 2008, p. 5). To obtain at least reasonable output form employees, the organization that has employed the human resource must ensure that these resources are given an environment that will promote their working processes. Most of the conditions to this work friendly environment are requirements subject to human rights adherence. An em ploying organization through its human resource management must ensure that its workers are in a safe and healthy environment. The safety and health conditions at workplaces are critically important especially in construction and chemical related industries. The measures like preventing falls from high levels in a building construction sites and preventing leaks in a chemical manufacturing companies among others eliminates fears among workers as they carry out their activities. The fear of unsafe and unhealthy working conditions have the effects of scaring away workers or subjecting the workers to extra caution that could even draw their concentration away from working to taking care of the risks that could endanger their lives. Other measures, according to Schneeman (2000) that the human resource management looks into in regard to work environment include: â€Å"fair employment practices, environmental protection and practices, compliance with laws and maintaining thorough leaders hip at all levels of the organization† (Schneeman, 2000, p. 201). Peggy (2009) upon research noted that employees are keen on issues such as: equity in the provision of remunerations and motivational rewards, provision of a healthy and safe working environment, establishment of a workplace that is accommodative with respect to social and family issues, attention to the needs of the organization’s employees and communication of the organization’s plans and intentions among others. These issues, depending on an organization’s human resource management’s approach in tackling them, have a direct effect to the attitude developed by employees towards the management in general. The developed attitude consequently will determine the productivity and efficiency of the individual employees and the organization as a body (Peggy, 2009, p. 73). Fernando (2009) identified human resource as perishable substance. According to Fernando (2009), the responsibility of preserving this perishable item rests on the management of the organization. The human resource department should make sure that the employees are well taken care of so that the labor that they offer is not lost due to discouragements and lack of motivational innovations. Issues such as â€Å"equal opportunities, encouragement of whistle blowing, humane treatment of employees, employee empowerment, participative and collaborative environment† (Fernando, 2009, p. 63) among others affect labor output of employees. The administration therefore influences the employee productivity depending on how it handles such matters (Fernando, 2009, p. 64). Once the human resource has been recruited, selected, oriented and finally trained and molded into the organization’s expectations, the task that remains is to maintain the employee at his or her peak of performance. The management of performance at this level takes into consideration both an individual employee as well as the imme diate team or group that the employee works in and finally the general organization. This management should be strategic to explore issues from a wider perspective with focus on long term goals. The performance management should: be inclusive of various departments and levels of management, focus on sustaining the performance and even improving the performance, and develop the capacities of the employees and to build on behavioral practices (Sharma, 2009, p. 213; Singla, 2010). According to Bohlander and Snell (2009), it is important for the human resource management to understand what its staff is going through during the period of development. This is specifically important to help employees not lap back from their achieved high performance levels. An achieved high performance level should be monitored over time and matters that arise relating to the performance level addressed. The monitoring process should establish among others things: the existence of team work, availability o f empowerment to the employees, success derived from training sessions and fair treatment of employees in the course of their duty (Bohlander and Snell, 2009, p. 730). Pasmore’s research on performance (2010) indicated that even facilities that acquired a high performance level were liable to losing their performance efficiency. The loss of performance of the machinery can also translate to reduced performance levels of the employees. The loss of efficiency in the machinery can also be used to understand the fact that human beings can as well be trained to a level of performance and still lose it and experience inefficiency (Pasmore, 2010, p. 84). Conclusion In view of the above discussion, which has been exploring the aspects and activities of the human resource management, it is evident that this branch of management is very influential in the operation of an organization. Its processes like selecting, training and sustaining employees directly contributes to the individual performance of the employees which is then translated into team performance and finally the productivity of an organization. Due to the interdependence of departments of every organization and the fact that a large number of processes in every organization require human attention, directly or indirectly, the management of these employees is a very important determinant in the overall operation of each organization. It can therefore be concluded that the management of the human resource is core to achieving competitive advantage of business entities. References Bohlander, G. and Snell, S. (2009) Managing Human Resources. Canada: Cengage Learning. Brandau, K. (2010) Retention leadership. Web. Buckley, F. (2008) Equal Employment Opportunity Compliance Guide. New York: Aspen Publishers. Buckley, R. and Caple, J. (2007) The Theory and Practice of Training. London: Kogan Page Publishers. Dewan, M. and Sudarshan, N. (1996) Promotion management. New Delhi: Discovery publishing house. Elear n, D. (2009) Recruitment and Selection. Burlington: Elsevier. Fernando, C. (2009) Corporate Governance: Principles, Policies and Practices. India: Pearson Education India. Kennedy, d., Schulz, B. and Robert, S. (2005) Corporate integrity: a toolkit for managing beyond compliance. San Francisco: John Wiley and Sons. Manager. (2010) Human Resources Management – Employee Retention. Web. McNamara, C. (n.d.) All About Human Resources and Talent Management. Web. Nyambegera, S. (2005) Human resource management, A biblical perspective. Nairobi: Uzima publishing house. Panszczyk, L., Kennedy, D. and Turan, T. (2004) US master employee benefits guide. New York: CCH Incorporated. Pasmore, W. (2010) Research in Organizational Change and Development. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing. Peggy, C. (2009) Looking beyond profit: small shareholders and the values imperative. Farnham: Gower Publishing. Schneeman, A. (2000) Paralegal ethics. New York: Cengage Learning. Sharma, K. (2009) Handbook Of HRM Practices: Management Policies and Practices. New Delhi, India: Global India Publications. Singla, K. (2010) Business management. New Delhi: FK Publishers. Tailor, S. (2002) The employee retention handbook. London: CIPD Publishing. This essay on The Aspects and Activities of the Human Resource Management was written and submitted by user Maxton V. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Important School Tips for Parents From a Principal

Important School Tips for Parents From a Principal For teachers, parents can be your worst enemy or your best friend.  Over the course of the last decade, I have worked with a handful of the most difficult parents, as well as many of the best parents. I believe that the majority of parents do a terrific job and genuinely try their best. The truth is that being a parent is not easy. We make mistakes, and there is no way we can be good at everything. Sometimes as a parent it is critical to rely on and seek advice from experts in certain areas. As a principal, I would like to offer a few school tips for parents that I believe every educator would want them to know, and that will also benefit their children. 1. Be Supportive Any teacher will tell you that if a child’s parent is supportive that they will gladly work through any issues that might arise over the course of the school year. Teachers are human, and there is a chance they will make a mistake. However, despite perception, most teachers are dedicated professionals who do a terrific job day in and day out. It is unrealistic to think that there are not bad teachers out there, but most are exceptionally skilled at what they do. If your child does have a lousy teacher, please don’t judge the next teacher based on the previous, and voice your concerns about that teacher to the principal. If your child has an excellent teacher, then make sure that the teacher knows how you feel about them and also let the principal know. Voice your support not only of the teacher but of the school as a whole. 2. Be Involved and Stay Involved One of the most frustrating trends in schools is how the level of parental involvement decreases as a child’s age increases. It is an extremely discouraging fact because children of all ages would benefit if their parents would stay involved. While it is certain that the first few years of school are arguably the most important, the other years are important as well. Children are smart and intuitive. When they see their parents taking a step back in their involvement, it sends the wrong message. Most children will start to slack off too. It is a sad reality that many middle school and high school parent/teacher conferences have an exceedingly small turnout. The ones who do show up are the ones that teachers often say don’t need to, but the correlation to their child’s success and their continued involvement in their child’s education is no mistake. Every parent should know what is going on in their child’s daily school life. A parent should do the following things every day: Ask your child how their school day went. Engage in conversation about what they learned, whom their friends are, what they had for lunch, etc.Make sure your child has time set aside to complete homework. Be there to answer any questions or assist when needed.Read all notes/memos sent home from the school and/or teacher. Notes are the primary form of communications between a teacher and parents. Look for them and read them to stay up-to-date on events.Contact your child’s teacher immediately if you have any concerns.Value your child’s education and express the importance of it every single day. This is arguably the single most valuable thing a parent can do when it comes to their child’s education. Those that value education often thrives and those that don’t often fail. 3. Do Not Bad-Mouth the Teacher in Front of Your Child Nothing undermines the authority of a teacher any faster than when a parent continuously bashes them or talks bad about them in front of their child. There are times when you are going to be upset with a teacher, but your child should never know exactly how you feel. It will interfere with their education. If you vocally and adamantly disrespect the teacher, then your child will likely mirror you. Keep your personal feelings about the teacher between yourself, the school administration, and the teacher. 4. Follow Through As an administrator, I cannot tell you how many times I have dealt with a student discipline issue where the parent will come in tremendously supportive and apologetic about their child’s behavior. They often tell you that they are going to ground their child and discipline them at home on top of the school’s punishment. However, when you inquire with the student the next day, they tell you that nothing was done. Children need structure and discipline and most crave it on some level. If your child makes a mistake, then there should be consequences at school and at home. This will show the child that both the parent and school are on the same page and that they are not going to be allowed to get away with that behavior. However, if you do not have any intent on following through on your end, then do not promise to take care of it at home. When you practice this behavior, it sends an underlying message that the child can make a mistake, but in the end, there is not going to be a punishment. Follow through with your threats. 5. Do Not Take Your Child’s Word for the Truth If your child came home from school and told you that their teacher threw a box of Kleenexes at them, how would you handle it? Would you instantly assume that they are telling the truth?Would you call or meet the principal and demand that the teacher be removed?Would you aggressively approach the teacher and make accusations?Would you call and request a meeting with the teacher to ask them calmly if they could explain what happened? If you are a parent who chooses anything other than 4, then your choice is the worst kind of a slap in the face to an educator. Parents who take their child’s word over an adult before consulting with the adult challenge their authority. While it is entirely possible that the child is telling the truth, the teacher should be given the right to explain their side without being viciously attacked first. Too many times, children leave out crucial facts, when explaining situations like this to their parent. Children are often devious by nature, and if there is a chance they can get their teacher in trouble, then they will go for it. Parents and teachers who stay on the same page and work together alleviate this opportunity for assumptions and misconceptions because the child knows they won’t get away with it. 6. Do Not Make Excuses for Your Child Help us hold your child accountable. If your child makes a mistake, don’t bail them out by constantly making excuses for them. From time to time, there are legitimate excuses, but if you are constantly making excuses for your child, then you are not doing them any favors. You won’t be able to make excuses for them their whole life, so don’t let them get into that habit. If they didn’t do their homework, don’t call the teacher and say it was your fault because you took them to a ball game. If they get in trouble for hitting another student, don’t make the excuse that they learned that behavior from an older sibling. Stand firm with the school and teach them a life lesson that could prevent them from making bigger mistakes later on.

Friday, November 22, 2019

Indus Civilization Timeline and Description

Indus Civilization Timeline and Description The Indus civilization (also known as the Harappan Civilization, the Indus-Sarasvati or Hakra Civilization and sometimes the Indus Valley Civilization) is one of the oldest societies we know of, including over 2600 known archaeological sites located along the Indus and Sarasvati rivers in Pakistan and India, an area of some 1.6 million square kilometers. The largest known Harappan site is Ganweriwala, located on the bank of the Sarasvati river. Timeline of the Indus Civilization Important sites are listed after each phase. Chalcolithic cultures 4300-3200 BCEarly Harappan 3500-2700 BC (Mohenjo-Daro, Mehrgarh, Jodhpura, Padri)Early Harappan/Mature Harappan Transition 2800-2700 BC (Kumal, Nausharo, Kot Diji, Nari)Mature Harappan 2700-1900 BC (Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro, Shortgua, Lothal, Nari)Late Harappan 1900-1500 BC (Lothal, Bet Dwarka) The earliest settlements of the Harappans were in Baluchistan, Pakistan, beginning about 3500 BC. These sites are an independent outgrowth of Chalcolithic cultures in place in south Asia between 3800-3500 BC. Early Harappan sites built mud brick houses, and carried on long-distance trade.The Mature Harappan sites are located along the Indus and Sarasvati rivers and their tributaries. They lived in planned communities of houses built of mud brick, burnt brick, and chiseled stone. Citadels were built at sites such as Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro, Dholavira and Ropar, with carved stone gateways and fortification walls. Around the citadels were an extensive range of water reservoirs. Trade with Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Persian gulf is in evidence between 2700-1900 BC. Indus Lifestyles Mature Harappan society had three classes, including a religious elite, a trading class class and the poor workers. Art of the Harappan includes bronze figures of men, women, animals, birds and toys cast with the lost was method. Terracotta figurines are rarer, but are known from some sites, as is shell, bone, semiprecious and clay jewelry.Seals carved from steatite squares contain the earliest forms of writing. Almost 6000 inscriptions have been found to date, although they have yet to be deciphered. Scholars are divided about whether the language is likely a form of Proto-Dravidian, Proto-Brahmi or Sanskrit. Early burials were primarily extended with grave goods; later burials were varied. Subsistence and Industry The earliest pottery made in the Harappan region was built beginning about 6000 BC, and included storage jars, perforated cylindrical towers and footed dishes. The copper/bronze industry flourished at sites such as Harappa and Lothal, and copper casting and hammering were used. Shell and bead making industry was very important, particularly at sites such as Chanhu-daro where mass production of beads and seals is in evidence.The Harappan people grew wheat, barley, rice, ragi, jowar, and cotton, and raised cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats and chickens. Camels, elephants, horses, and asses were used as transport. Late Harappan The Harappan civilization ended between about 2000 and 1900 BC, resulting from a combination of environmental factors such as flooding and climatic changes, tectonic activity, and the decline of trade with western societies.   Indus Civilization Research Archaeologists associated with the Indus Valley Civilizations include R.D. Banerji, John Marshall, N. Dikshit, Daya Ram Sahni, Madho Sarup Vats, Mortimer Wheeler. More recent work has been conducted by B.B. Lal, S.R. Rao, M.K. Dhavalikar, G.L. Possehl, J. F. Jarrige, Jonathon Mark Kenoyer, and Deo Prakash Sharma, among many others at the National Museum in New Delhi. Important Harappan Sites Ganweriwala, Rakhigarhi, Dhalewan, Mohenjo-Daro, Dholavira, Harappa, Nausharo, Kot Diji, and Mehrgarh, Padri. Sources An excellent source for detailed information of the Indus civilization and with lots of photographs is Harappa.com. For information on the Indus Script and Sanskrit, see Ancient Writing of India and Asia. Archaeological sites (both on About.com and elsewhere are compiled in Archaeological Sites of the Indus Civilization. A brief Bibliography of the Indus Civilization has also been compiled.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Brand Benefit Ladder Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 112

Brand Benefit Ladder - Essay Example At the apex lies the essence of the brand, which is also an implication of the emotional benefit. The focus keeps increasing in concentration as ladder rises. Ascending the ladder reduces the focus on the lower attachments such as the attributes associated with the brand while increasing the function of the brand in the lives of consumers. Unearthing why the mother of a football player drives an SUV instead of a simple mini-van clearly illustrates the flow of the ladder. At first, an analyst considers the attribute of the product (car) for instance, SUV’s do not have doors that slide. It means that an SUV is stylish because of the attribute, therefore; it constitutes a functional consequence of the absence of sliding doors. When the Mom feels trendy while driving, it amounts to the emotional or psychosocial consequence of owning a car with a stylish design. In the end, the bottom-line is the personal value where people, as well as the owner, accept the act of feeling fashionab le. Marketing experts define a brand as a set of memories, expectations, relationships, and stories that, taken together, explain a decision by a consumer to select one service or product over another. A brand differentiates services, products, as well as organizations (Barsalou 640). Milward Brown developed the most common type of Brand Pyramid towards the end of the twentieth century. The pyramid identifies five important stages traversed by a consumer when analyzing a brand. The process starts with primary awareness and ends with total loyalty. Business organizations can apply the Brand Pyramid when in the process of designing a marketing strategy. The strategy could be for a product, a brand, or a service. Comprehending the five steps traveled by the consumer forms the best foundation for designing the marketing strategies. The steps are essential as they help the consumer build loyalty on a particular product or brand.

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Operations and Quality Improvement Strategies Coursework

Operations and Quality Improvement Strategies - Coursework Example Organizations can apply a set of skills and tools to reduce operational cost, increase efficiency and productivity, and improve the quality of their processes, products and services. 1. Lean Manufacturing. Critically discuss the differences, using examples, between the Lean and Mass (Traditional) Production strategies. A. Rationale: Lean Manufacturing, a Japanese philosophy, gained attention at the beginning of the 1980’s when the western leaders could not stop wondering the inimitable industrial advances and permanent employment of the Japanese businesses (A to Z Management Concepts and Models 2007). It has been described as â€Å"the most fundamental change to occur since mass production was brought to full development by Henry Ford early in the 20th century† (Hindle 2008). Lean manufacturing has been established as one of the crucial factors for Japanese success. There are two basic concepts that are involved here: making the management work to give lower cost per un it produced which directly enhances productivity, secondly, striving for continuous improvement (kaizen). Workers are expected and encouraged to adopt a new approach to their work and reap the benefit of it (A to Z Management Concepts and Models 2007). Generally, in lean production systems employees are organized in teams and each worker must be able to do all the tasks required of the team. â€Å"These tasks are less narrowly specialised than those demanded of the worker in a mass-production system, and this variety enables the worker to escape from the soul-destroying repetition of the pure assembly line† (Hindle 2008) B. Evolution: In 1776, Adam Smith in the Wealth of Nations described that mass production is based on the principles of specialization and division of labour. To design products and to set up production systems highly skilled labours are used whereas to produce standardized components and assemble them the labours used are highly unskilled. The latter are dis posable and can be laid off depending on the situation. In mass production, parts used are often manufactured elsewhere and then put together on a moving production facility called assembly line. â€Å"The result is a standardized product made in a fairly small number of varieties, produced at low cost and of mediocre quality.† If a problem needs to be corrected at any point in an assembly line the entire process stops (Hindle 2008). Lean production system requires the components to be delivered just-in-time and each worker is allowed to stop production when a fault is discovered. This is the basic difference from classic assembly line process where stoppages are expensive and should be avoided at all costs. With a mass production system the worker learn nothing because all the faulty products are put aside to be dealt with later. They are replaced immediately, from the large stock of spares, without causing any hold-ups. In case of lean production, problems are immediately r esolved when a stoppage occurs and gradually this diminishes the number of stoppages. Eventually, a mature lean-production line stops a much lesser number of times than a mature mass-production assembly line (A to Z Management Concepts and Models 2007). Yet another advantage of lean production is that designers, workers and suppliers work hand-in-hand with production which never happens in a mass-production system. A separate team of insiders or specialists participate in designing which

Saturday, November 16, 2019

San Diego Zoo Essay Example for Free

San Diego Zoo Essay 1. Do you think the San Diego Zoo’s old appraisal system needed to be changed? I think it needed to be changed because before they weren’t taking it seriously and it was a low priority to them. Now with the new system the employees will get raises depending on their performance which in turn will increase company performance. 2. What do you think are the pros and cons of using a Web-based appraisal system? The pros of using a web-based appraisal system is that it is convenient because a large group of people can be rated in less time and it will control personal bias. The cons of using a web-based appraisal system is that it gives too little attention to the overall performance of workers and in person interviews are more effective in rewarding or pointing out deficiencies in workers. 3. How do you the new appraisal system will affect employees and the types of employees who work at the zoo? The new appraisal system will affect employees positively for those employees that are looking to grow with the company and be a part of the growth. When an employee is given targets and goals to reach, then they know what they are working towards and they are aware that if they reach the targets and goals there is a gain for them at the end. With this set, you will get employees that are willing to do the work and the time to get a job done right.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

The Detrimental Effects of Soda :: Coke Pepsi

What is your favorite soda? Coke? Do you know what is in soda? Cutting down on soda can be the geginning of a healthy lifestyle. Studies show that soda, though it tastes good, has many negative effects that outweigh the positive effects. Soda, especially diet, is detrimental to the health of your body. My cousin’s teacher did an experiment with coke. She put a tooth in coke and left it for at least a week. The next time they checked the tooth had disintegrated. The coke had eaten away at the tooth. If this can happen to a tooth imagine what it does to your body. How healthful are these drinks, which provide a lot of sugars, calories and caffeine but no significant nutritional value? And what happens if you drink a lot of them at a very young age? Soda is a sweetened, carbonated, acidic, often caffeinated drink. Forty-five gallons of soda is consumed per person/per year by the average American. Even adults are just as vulnerable to tooth decay, from drinking excessive amounts of soda, even though they have good enamel and well calcified teeth. In America soda manufacturers are the biggest users of sugar. At least ten teaspoons are in each, 12 ounce, can which provides you with the maximum recommended intake of sugar a day. Sugar creates insulin which tells the body to store all carbohydrates as fat. Sugar in soda can cause heightened cholesterol levels, heart disease, diabetes, weight gain, and premature aging. (Mercola) Sugar isn’t the only thing in soda that is bad for teeth, but the acids included in many soft drinks eat away enamel and make teeth more vulnerable. The pH, measure of acidity or alkalinity of a solution, of regular and diet sodas ranges from 2.47-3.35, the lower the pH the more acidic it is. The pH in our mouth is normally about 6.2 to 7, slightly more acidic than water. A pH of 5.2 to 5.5 or below can dissolve the hard enamel of our teeth. Phosphoric acid is in all soda and interferes with the use of calcium which can lead to osteoporosis. Phosphoric acid also neutralizes hydrochloric acid and so digestion cannot properly take place. Aspartame is another ingredient in sodas, particularly Diet Soda. Aspartame is a carcinogen and becomes wood alcohol also known as methanol. In large amounts Aspartame can make someone who drinks diet soda, constantly, feel depressed, fatigued, dehydrated, and/or hungry.

Monday, November 11, 2019

Banyan Tree Essay

Minimal advertising, still high level of brand awareness through company’s public relations and global marketing programs. Faced the challenge of translating and maintaining the success of a niche Asian hospitality brand into various market segments on a global scale ‘Innovative niche product that could also bridge the price gap in this market’ Building a resort comprising individual villas with locally inspired architectural design and positioned as a romantic and intimate escapade for guests; ‘Sanctuary for the senses’. Banyan Tree Gallery: ‘local culture and heritage and promoting cottage Crafts, retail outlet showcasing indigenous crafts, works closely with village cooperatives and not-for-profit craft marketing agents. Marketing: high-end travel magazines in key markets – public relations – global marketing programs (increase editorial coverage) – few key wholesalers in each targeted market – agents specializing in exlusive luxury holidays targeted at wealthy customers – membership in the Small Luxury Hotels and Leading Hotels of the World – GDS cose ‘BY’ (own global distribution system used by travel providers to process airline, hotel, car rental and other distribution partners around the world. Actively caring for the natural and human environment, revitalizing local communities, worked actively to preserve, protect, and promote the natural and human environments in which BYT resorts where located. Minimizing the impact on the environment Green Communities = planted trees, engage local communities, associates, guests to share the causes of climate change and actions that can reduce our collected carbon footprint. Green Imperative Fund to further support community-based and environmental initiatives in the regions where it has a presence. The company believed in building profitable resorts that would benefit the surrounding environment and contribute to local economies through the creation of employment and community development projects. Businesses with local farmers and traders by making it a point to purchase fresh produce from them. Community Relations Department was set up to develop and manage community outreach programs. Seedling: BTHR’s formalized program which aimed to help  young adults from local communities and motivate them and provide the means for completing their education to successfully enter the labor force as adults. Future: openening city hotels and angsana hotels in Dubai and London (angsana brand in response to the demand for hotel operators in Asia that were keen to introduce spa services in their hotel, it is more contemporary and affordable brand. Musem Shop by banyan tree: joint partnetship with Singapor’s national heritage board to showcase Asi’a rich and diverse cultural heritage through unique museum-inspired merchandise. Banyan Tree Holdings (Banyan Tree) is an investment holding company involved in managing and developing premium resorts, hotels and spas in the Asia Pacific. To date, the Banyan Tree Group manages and/or has ownership interests in close to 36 hotels and resorts, around 73 spas, 91 galleries  and 3 golf courses in 28 countries The company operates in Asia, Mexico and Morocco, New Zealand, Africa, Dubai, and the UK. Banyan Tree operates through three business segments: hotel investment, property sales, and fee-based. 1: The hotel investments segment relates to hotel and restaurant operations. The property sales segment comprises hotel residences, Laguna property sales and development project/site sales. Hotel residences business relates to the sale of hotel villas or suites which are part of hotel operations, to investors under a compulsory leaseback scheme. Laguna property sales business relates to the development and sale of properties which are standalone vacation homes in Laguna Phuket. Development project/site sales relates to pure development land sales or development land sales which are fully or partially developed with infrastructure. The fee-based segment comprises the management of hotels and resorts, the management of an asset-backed destination club, the management of private-equity funds, the management and operation of spas, the sales of merchandise, the provision of architectural and design services, the management and ownership of golf courses, and rental of retail outlets and offices. The company’s subsidiaries (dochterbedrijf) include Banyan Tree Spa Bangkok, Banyan Tree Spa Bintan, Banyan Tree Spa Ringha, Banyan Tree Spa Phuket, Banyan Tree Sanya, and Banyan Tree Macau, among others. Banyan Tree Holdings (Banyan Tree) is engaged in the management and development of premium resorts, hotels and spas. The company’s key services include the following. Hotel and restaurant operations Sale of hotel villas or suites – Development and sale of properties – Pure development land sales – Management of hotels and resorts – Management of an asset-backed destination club – Management of private-equity funds -Management and operation of spas – Architectural and design services – Management and ownership of golf courses – Rental of retail outlets and offices. The following companies are the major competitors of Banyan Tree Holdings Limited: Central Plaza Hotel Public Company Limited – Four Seasons Hotels Inc – Associated International Hotels Ltd In the past few years, such events risks as the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami, bird flu, floods and riots in Thailand have been hard on our industry, causing tourism as a whole to dry up in their wake. By comparison, economic recessions are part and parcel of the business cycle, which we are able to take in our stride and counter with a variety of measures. During the year, the world remained mired in the European sovereign debt crisis and American economic weakness. Although these conditions affected our arrivals primarily from Europe, we were able to capitalise on the flourishing Chinese market. At our four resorts in the Maldives, for example, the number of Chinese guests surpassed those from Europe. In our continuing efforts to rebalance the Group’s assets, we made the bargain purchase of Banyan Tree Seychelles which gave rise to a net gain. We also sold and leased back Angsana Velavaru in January 2013. The hybrid structure of this deal is a first for Banyan Tree, and we are pleased with how it allows us to rebalance our portfolio while still participating in the profits from the operations of Angsana Velavaru. 2012: with overall revenue growing 3% to S$338. 4 million. Due to improved results from our hotel investments and fee-based businesses, as well as a higher contribution from completed sales of property units. Group EBITDA was S$74. 5 million, up 51% on the back of higher revenue and a gain on the bargain purchase of Banyan Tree Seychelles. This in turn resulted in PATMI increasing by 856% (S$14.9 million), tempered by higher finance costs and income tax expenses. HOTEL INVESTMENTS Our hotel investments delivered a stronger performance in 2012, with Group-owned hotels posting total revenue of S$187. 7 million, up 15% from the previous year. This was due to the higher contribution from our Thai properties and the consolidation of revenue from Banyan Tree Seychelles from 2Q12 onwards. These gains were partially offset by lower revenue from our Maldives properties as Banyan Tree Vabbinfaru and Angsana Ihuru were temporarily closed for refurbishment. As a result of the increase in revenue, EBITDA for this segment grew by a healthy 69% to S$36. 6 million. PROPERTY SALES Revenue from property sales was S$42. 7 million. The 36% decrease was due to the sale of development sites in Lijiang, Yangshuo and Huangshan to our China Fund in 2011. Excluding those transactions, revenue and EBITDA from property sales saw growth of 43% and 74% respectively, thanks to a higher contribution from completed sales of property units. FEE-BASED Total revenue from our fee-based businesses registered growth of 9% to reach S$108. This was attributable to an increase in fees from hotel management and architectural and interior design and other services. Accordingly, EBITDA for our fee-based businesses grew by 23%. 2013 appears to be another challenging year for the global economy. We anticipate continued weakness in our European target markets. In Asia, which has been the world’s economic engine these past four years, growth is likely to moderate. Despite the cooling of China’s economy, the tourism market both inbound and outbound is expected to continue to grow. The Chinese government is aggressively promoting domestic tourism as part of its strategy to increase domestic consumption, thereby cushioning the slowdown in export manufacturing. Banyan Tree’s strong branding and rapidly expanding footprint in China will position us to take advantage of this trend. Our seven regional marketing offices in China will be invaluable in enabling us to tap the vast potential of this market and to enhance awareness of our hotels with key accounts in China. Our strategy going forward will include continuing with our asset rebalancing to unlock value and deploy capital to more promising markets. At the same time, we are exploring the possibility of extending the successful Fund model into other areas. In terms of growing particular segments, we will be focusing on increasing income from our fee-based and property sales businesses. We have built the fee-based segment to a point where it now has an impetus of its own. On the property sales front, we plan to move into selling more primary and serviced residences. Primary residences under the Banyan Tree brand, â€Å"We will also be going forward with the establishment of a third brand of residences to be wholly sold and managed by us. † Rather than compete with local property developers, we will leverage our branding and design skills to market to a niche audience in China. We will also be going forward with the establishment of a third brand of residences to be wholly sold and managed by us. Catering to an entirely new market of price-conscious buyers, these properties will be smaller in size yet deliver the quality and innovation that are hallmarks of Banyan Tree. Strongly associated with our brand is the concept of a triple bottom line. In our pursuit of economic, social and environmental success, we made major investments in resource conservation, training and benchmarking, greening and community efforts in 2012. Under the EarthCheck system of sustainability certification, we also planted in six-year a total to over 220,000 trees. Banyan Tree Hotels and Resorts offer an intimate retreat experience featuring its signature blend of romance, rejuvenation and exotic sensuality. Our philosophy is based on providing a place for rejuvenation of the body, mind and soul – a Sanctuary for the Senses. Placing special emphasis on providing guests with a sense of place, each Banyan Tree property is designed to fit into its natural surroundings, using indigenous materials as far as possible and reflecting the landscape and architecture of the destination. Pioneering  the tropical garden spa concept with Asian health and beauty remedies passed down from generations, Banyan Tree Spa was created as the signature experience in all Banyan Tree resorts, to complement the â€Å"Sanctuary for the Senses† wellness concept. With the emphasis on high service standards and consistency, therapists are professionally trained at Banyan Tree Spa Academies in Phuket, Thailand, and Lijiang, China. The Banyan Tree Gallery supports local communities by exhibiting and retailing indigenous handicrafts, which are also found in the resorts. A quintessential highlight of the Banyan Tree experience, Banyan Tree Gallery aspires to recreate the unique Banyan Tree experience with  its extensive selection of  Asian-style furnishings, Banyan Tree Spa collection, eco-friendly products, indigenous village handicrafts, ethnic apparel and accessories, and objects d’art. Banyan Tree Holdings Limited is a leading, international hospitality brand that manages and develops premium resorts, hotels and spas. Its innovative business model is based on seven business segments generating multiple income streams that is unique in itself within the hospitality industry. This formula of developing and managing complementary product offerings with in-house talent makes it difficult for competitors to duplicate with the same level of success. Banyan Tree’s vertically integrated business model comprises: Hotel investment– Banyan Tree owns and manages luxury hotels under its brands, as well as hotels that are managed by other world-class operators. Hotel management– Banyan Tree additionally manages properties under the Banyan Tree and Angsana brands for other owners. Canopy Marketing Group Pte Ltd – A company wholly owned by Banyan Tree Services, Canopy Marketing Group Pte Ltd provides high-level strategic insights on various global niche markets to drive top line performance of our diverse range of lifestyle products including hotels, resorts, spas, gallery, destination club and residential ownership. It has a full-suite of marketing capabilities specializing in the branding, marketing and promotion. Spa operations– Banyan Tree Spa pioneered the tropical garden spa concept, and has since grown to over 60 outlets worldwide. Gallery operations– The retail arm is consolidated under Banyan Tree Gallery, which comprises five brand segments located in over 70 stores worldwide. Hotel residences – Hotel inventory are primarily sold under the brand name Banyan Tree Residences. Property sales – Properties that are not part of hotel operations are sold by our subsidiary company, Laguna Resorts and Hotels, and its subsidiaries, in Laguna Phuket. Design and other services – Revenue from design services is earned by Architrave, Banyan Tree’s in-house architectural arm. Other service fees include income from operating golf clubs. Real Estate Hospitality Funds – Banyan Tree Capital was set upto tap private equity and other sources of investments in order to provide a cost efficient structure to fund the Group’s future developments. With about 8,000 associates of over 50 nationalities, the diversity of its workforce is a key feature of the Group and helps to inspire its international outlook. To address its talent development needs, Banyan Tree launched Banyan Tree Management Academy (BTMA) in 2008. This centralised training facility located in Phuket, Thailand will train future Banyan Tree leaders needed to sustain organisational effectiveness and to meet the demands of its rapid global growth. Part of Banyan Tree’s vision has always been to grow into a global business, with a portfolio of properties strategically placed around the world. The Group’s mission is inextricably intertwined with its commitment to corporate social responsibility and sustainable growth, as it continues to expand globally. The launch of Banyan Tree Residences, which allows investors to buy their own signature villa, townhouse or apartment in Banyan Tree resorts. Banyan Tree Private Collection was launched to cater to the growing niche for destination club membership 2005: Marking the group’s long awaited foray into China is Banyan Tree Ringha, in Yunnan. 2001: Banyan Tree established the Green Imperative Fund to formalise its corporate social responsibility efforts. The Banyan Tree Spa Academy was set up to provide training for new therapists as well as research new treatment recipes and techniques. Banyan Tree Capital is a real estate fund management company established by the Banyan Tree group, a renowned luxury hospitality company listed in Singapore, to focus on hospitality-based real estate investment. Banyan Tree Capital raises, develops and manages branded hospitality funds in key development markets of the Banyan Tree group. With a combination of fund management and asset development capabilities, Banyan Tree Capital leverages on the group’s expertise in premium hospitality real estate development and management to generate attractive investment returns for its investors. Banyan Tree Capital is headquartered in Singapore with offices in China and Vietnam. We have successfully achieved higher room rates than the existing market in locations such as Lijiang, the Maldives and Seychelles. We have also found that our iconic brands also help raise the value of the surrounding land. Our innovative city products combine all the iconic elements of our brand and differentiate developers within established, high cost city markets. We have the flexibility and capabilities to adapt our model to various locations so as to maximize returns for the developer As part of our strategy of enlarging our footprint in China, we will also be launching two more hotels in Shanghai and one in Tianjin, adding to our ever growing presence in various gateway cities. We are also employing our capabilities all across China, where large tracts of land are being developed into gated residences and luxury hotels offered to the Chinese elite. One of Banyan Tree’s prime concerns is its associates. We pride ourselves in providing high levels of service excellence and providing tailor made training and career development programmes for our employees. No stone is left unturned in regards to training and proper introduction before a Banyan Tree is put into operation. Trained to the basic standards of 5 star hotels. Employees were empowered to exercise creativity and sensitivity although the strict administrative rules of the management. Employees were taken to and from work in air-conditioned buses, access to various amenities (good-quality canteens, medical services, childcare facilities). Banyan Tree is one of the world’s biggest and well known spa operators. Our levels of quality and service are unparalleled and uncompromised. We are the only vertically integrated hospitality company with strong capabilities to tackle and anticipate the challenges of master planning and developing an integrated resort. We are able to take a property from inception to delivery with efficiencies that is entirely brand specific. Our  in-house design team, Architrave, and project services team are extremely involved in all phases of the development – master planning, designing, developing and coordinating, to ensure developers a timely delivery of their asset. Being experienced developers, we are able to ensure that efficiencies and economies of scale are maximized along with guest experiences. Bintan, the Maldives and Phuket where the Angsana resort is positioned next to a Banyan Tree resort with shared back of house facilities. This model has allowed us to lower costs without cannibalizing rates, thereby boosting returns for our developers.

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Crime News for the Week Essay

The local paper that I decided to peruse was The New York Sun (online version). There were a total of seven articles, in relation to crime, which were dated from June 2 to June 9 of this year. The following describes each of these articles: The first article was dated June 2, 2008 and was entitled ‘Operation set to combat youth violence’. It talks about the event wherein state officials of New York City, including Governor Paterson and some police officials, discussed the rising gun violence in the state for the past weeks, concerning teenagers who were as young as thirteen years of age. They plan to implement SNUG that should start by putting additional funds for exercises and programs. The second article was dated June 3, 2008, written by Josh Gerstein, and entitled ‘Lawyer Weiss gets 30-month sentence for kickbacks’. It talks about the 30-month sentencing of New York’s plaintiffs’ bar Melvyn Weiss for his involvement in paying â€Å"secret kickbacks to investors who helped his firm file class-action securities lawsuits† (Gerstein, 2008). Judge John Walter called it a ‘breathtaking’ conspiracy. The third article was dated June 4, 2008, and was entitled ‘Group files suit to stop Paterson’s gay marriage directive’. It talks about the Alliance Defense Fund filing a lawsuit against the New York state government for not recognizing same-sex marriages that have been allowed by other states like Massachusetts. However, Governor Paterson mentioned that, for those who are interested in gay marriages, they would only have to go to places like Canada and Massachusetts to avail a legal marriage contract. The fourth article was dated June 5, 2008, written by Kate Taylor, and entitled ‘Embattled assassination exhibit may be hoax’. It talks of the art exhibition of Yazmany Arboleda at 264 West 40th Street in New York, where the following phrases were imprinted in the sign: ‘The Assassination of Hillary Clinton’ and ‘The Assassination of Barack Obama’. Arboleda was released without charges when he mentioned that they were merely part of art. The fifth article was dated June 6, 2008, written by Hope Hodge, and entitled ‘Report: school custodial workers stole $60,000’. This article relates to the stealing done by former custodial workers of the Department of Education from Grover Cleveland High School situated in Queens. This was in the form of forged checks and unauthorized wage increases through an increase of pay rate without legal authorization. The sixth article was also dated June 6, 2008, also written by Hope Hodge, and entitled ‘Report: majority of sellers in city are overcharging for milk’. The article tells us that â€Å"[m]ore than 85% of milk sellers in the city are charging illegally high prices† (Hodge, 2008). The overcharge was an average of $0. 40 and, thus, needed an enforcement of the law. Lastly, the seventh article was dated on June 9, 2008, written by Anna Phillips, and entitled ‘Police department changes sought in wake of Sean Bell shooting’. It talks of the need to implement changes in the police department after the Sean Bell shooting event in 2006. Officials say that laws in the criminal justice system should be enforced all the more, and that there should be implementation of tests (i. e. , drug) on those who shoot their guns. To sum it all up, the seven articles that were retrieved this past week from The New York Sun talked of the following crimes: (1) youth and gun violence; (2) illegal kickbacks to investors; (3) legal adaptation of same-sex marriages; (4) character assassinations; (5) stealing; (6) illegal product price overcharging; and (7) wild shooting episodes. Conversely, these crimes can be grouped into the following major sets: (1) crimes against public safety; (2) crimes against effective business environments; (3) crimes against the practice of liberty and human rights; and (4) crimes against legal properties. It appears that the types of crime nowadays consist of those that are in connection to safety and welfare, human rights, and the economy. Despite what people say that the world is becoming more liberated and open-minded, the opposite appears to be the true trend. References Gerstein, J. (2008, June 3). Lawyer Weiss gets 30-month sentence for kickbacks. Retrieved June 9, 2008, from The New York Sun database: http://www. nysun. com/business/judge-sentences-mel-weiss-to-30-months/79104/. Group files suit to stop Paterson’s gay marriage directive. (2008, June 4). Retrieved June 9, 2008, from The New York Sun database: http://www. nysun. com/new-york/group-files-suit-to-stop-patersons-gay-marriage/79210/. Hodge, H. (2008, June 6). Report: majority of sellers in city are overcharging for milk. Retrieved June 9, 2008, from The New York Sun database: http://www. nysun. com/new-york/report-majority-of-sellers-in-city-are/79468/. Hodge, H. (2008, June 6). Report: school custodial workers stole $60,000. Retrieved June 9, 2008, from The New York Sun database: http://www. nysun. com/new-york/report-school-custodial-workers-stole-60000/79458/. Operation set to combat youth violence. (2008, June 2). Retrieved June 9, 2008, from The New York Sun database: http://www. nysun. com/new-york/operation-set-to-combat-youth-violence/79062/. Phillips, A. (2008, June 9). Police department changes sought in wake of Sean Bell shooting. Retrieved June 9, 2008, from The New York Sun database: http://www. nysun. com/new-york/police-department-changes-sought-in-wake-of-sean/79525/. Taylor, K. (2008, June 5). Embattled assassination exhibit may be hoax. Retrieved June 9, 2008, from The New York Sun database: http://www. nysun. com/new-york/embattled-exhibition-may-be-hoax/79370/.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Israels Wall essays

Israel's Wall essays Israel began building a barrier through its country for the fear of a Palestinian attack, namely suicide bombers. This combination fence and wall is planned to run more than 200 miles forming a separation barrier between Israel and the West Bank of Palestine. Israel claims this wall is necessary to stop bombings, but is being called an apartheid wall by the Palestinians, and is linked to the aggression and oppression of the Berlin Wall. Palestinians are complaining the wall cuts deep into its land, and many problems are arising, such as the citizens troubles: as many as 400,000 Palestinians are harmed by the barrier, as it cuts families off from their villages, jobs, fields, hospitals, and relatives. Also, many Palestinians find themselves in a bizarre no man's land separated from their village by the wall and fence, and enclosed by more fences that cut them off from the Israeli settlements. An example they give of someone living in this no mans land is of Hanni Omar, whose house is completely enclosed by 25 feet concrete and wire fences. To get to his own farm, or send his children to school, Hanni has to travel 30 feet to unlock a gate in the fence the Israeli officials constructed. He is quoted by saying, Not only do I live in a jail, but I am my own jailor. Everyday, Palestinians come to Hannis gate and beg him to unlock it so they can go through. He always refuses however, recalling that the soldiers would destroy his house if he ever let anyone, apart from his own family pass through. On the other side of the wire fence lives an old neighbor of Hanni. They used to be quite friendly to each other, but since the fences were constructed, they hardly ever have a chance to socialize anymore. On an early morning, Hanni and his 4-year-old son planted a row of 20 trees between his house and the wall. They hoped someday that the trees would grow and block out the sight of the awful wall. Hanni doe...

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

How to Convert Fahrenheit to Kelvin

How to Convert Fahrenheit to Kelvin Fahrenheit and Kelvin are two common temperature scales. The Fahrenheit scale is used in the United States, while Kelvin is an absolute temperature scale, used worldwide for scientific calculations. While you might think this conversion wouldnt occur much, it turns out there is a lot of scientific and engineering equipment that uses the Fahrenheit scale! Fortunately, it is easy to convert Fahrenheit to Kelvin. Fahrenheit to Kelvin Method #1 Subtract 32 from the Fahrenheit temperature.Multiply this number by 5.Divide this number by 9.Add 273.15 to this number. The answer will be the temperature in Kelvin. Note that while Fahrenheit has degrees, Kelvin does not. Fahrenheit to Kelvin Method #2 You can use the conversion equation to perform the calculation. This is especially easy if you have a calculator that allows you to enter the whole equation, but its not difficult to solve by hand. TK (TF 459.67) x 5/9 For example, to convert 60 degrees Fahrenheit to Kelvin: TK (60 459.67) x 5/9 TK 288.71 K Fahrenheit to Kelvin Conversion Table You can also estimate a temperature by looking up the closest value on a conversion table. There is a temperature where the Fahrenheit and Celsius scales read the same temperature. Fahrenheit and Kelvin read the same temperature at 574.25. Fahrenheit (Â °F) Kelvin (K) -459.67 Â °F 0 K -50 Â °F 227.59 K -40 Â °F 233.15 K -30 Â °F 238.71 K -20 Â °F 244.26 K -10 Â °F 249.82 K 0 Â °F 255.37 K 10 Â °F 260.93 K 20 Â °F 266.48 K 30 Â °F 272.04 K 40 Â °F 277.59 K 50 Â °F 283.15 K 60 Â °F 288.71 K 70 Â °F 294.26 K 80 Â °F 299.82 K 90 Â °F 305.37 K 100 Â °F 310.93 K 110 Â °F 316.48 K 120 Â °F 322.04 K 130 Â °F 327.59 K 140 Â °F 333.15 K 150 Â °F 338.71 K 160 Â °F 344.26 K 170 Â °F 349.82 K 180 Â °F 355.37 K 190 Â °F 360.93 K 200 Â °F 366.48 K 300 Â °F 422.04 K 400 Â °F 477.59 K 500 Â °F 533.15 K 600 Â °F 588.71 K 700 Â °F 644.26 K 800 Â °F 699.82 K 900 Â °F 755.37 K 1000 Â °F 810.93 K Do Other Temperature Conversions Converting Fahrenheit to Kelvin is not the only temperature conversion you may need to be familiar with. You may want to learn to convert between Celsius, Fahrenheit, and Kelvin in any combination Celsius to FahrenheitFahrenheit to CelsiusCelsius to KelvinKelvin to FahrenheitKelvin to Celsius

Saturday, November 2, 2019

Does the study of classical management theory have any value for Essay

Does the study of classical management theory have any value for managers in business today - Essay Example Industrialization brought people from different backgrounds to work in ‘factories’ as opposed to the handicraft system under which they had worked previously in small shops or in homes (Kim et al, 1995). It was felt, therefore at the time, a strong need for efficient planning, organizing and controlling of all work related activities, a need that was the main stimulant in the formation of the principals of â€Å"Scientific Management† and â€Å"Administrative Management†. Scientific management, in its essence was based upon the improvement of productivity, while Administrative management dealt, on the whole, with the organization as an entity and primarily focused on its overall effectiveness and improvement. The implications and results of the application of these two theories were immense and profound in their times, however, with the passage of time, the debate over the productivity of the classical theory of management became heated. As newer theories, principles and model’s emerged, the number of people who were un-sure of the effectiveness of this school of thought increased in number, and while it has not yet lost all credibility, there are a significant number of people who do not believe in the principles of scientific management and administrative management anymore. This paper deals with the applicability of the classical management theory in today’s age and discusses its usefulness for the management of the modern organization. The paper presents a review of the applications of the theory in the days of its infancy and follows that with a discussion about how relevant those applications are in today’s world. As mentioned before, a product of the Industrial Revolution, the classical management theory had two major components which were scientific management and administrative management. During that era, efficiency had become a

Thursday, October 31, 2019

Communal Supportive Action Theory Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Communal Supportive Action Theory - Assignment Example The initial part of the theory describes how people with measurable approach calculate their actions to benefit them self only, but they suffer long-term loneliness, lack of support and pleasure and disheveled reputation eventually. On the other hand, considerate individuals take a course of action which is less beneficial for them, but more beneficial towards larger humanity then they would earn long-term support, respect, a fiscal and sentimental advantage over the former one. The ‘Communal Supportive Action’ theory entails the idea of pleasantly surviving and sustaining in a society. This theory lays stress on the fact that individuals neither live alone nor their actions impact less. Hence, if they take actions according to their ease, preference, and lifestyle they would be withholding the notion of communal advantage. For instance, if garbage is thrown out of a house and dumped in a street, the trash would make the passage narrow, would produce long-term detrimental effects (health), would make a good home for pests and rats, would make the area look dirty and that would automatically evaluate the community. These self-centered actions are taken on the bases of personal priorities (shortage of time, lack of strength to walk the extra mile, lack of sense of cleanliness and lack of respect for others living in the surrounding). If one assesses the abovementioned theory with regard to objective approach then one realizes that Welfares, NGO’s, non-profitable organizations, religious and community beneficial services always concentrate on larger good instead of personal ones. Moreover, if individuals focus on their preferences then they attain short-term benefit and lack of dignity in the society as well.

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Corporate Strategy - Analysis of Michael Porter Essay

Corporate Strategy - Analysis of Michael Porter - Essay Example Companies were not willing to take risks and venture into path that was not trodden earlier by some one else. In the information technology sector, imitation became inevitable as emerging economies allowed inwards flow of FDI. When multinationals started expanding to low cost countries they had to enter in joint venture with a local partner, which means they had to transfer technology. When firms entered India, they had to opt for joint ventures. While older technologies are transferred through licensing agreement, new technologies or those with fewer previous transfers or where the transferors have little experience with technology transfers opt for FDI (Eapen & Hennart, 2002). Porter further says, in high-tech industries this imitation phase often continues much longer than it should. This is because once the companies become established they do not plan for anything new and do not have any clear strategic. Stagnation occurs, which results in mediocre returns. Companies that come out with fundamental advantages prosper such as Toyota in the automobile sector. The Big Three in the US automotive industry namely, Ford Motor Company (Ford), General Motors Corporation (GM) and DaimlerChrysler (DC) played a prominent role in the evolution of the automotive industry till the 1990s. The industry adopted the lean production technique from Japan in the 1990s. The auto industry is the most globalized in the world and has undergone turbulent changes. The industry has been facing issues such as facing issues such as slow time to market, costly inventories, overcapacity, and low customer satisfaction and loyalty (Deloitte, 2003). The Big Three did not take initiatives to bring about fundamental changes as technology evolved. This allowed others such as Toyota and Hyundai to dominate the world market. Today Toyota is America’s third most admired organization and enjoy a 17.4 percent share of the US retail market (SD, 2007). Toyota has

Sunday, October 27, 2019

The Role Of Managers In Staff Training Management Essay

The Role Of Managers In Staff Training Management Essay This paper explores how the organization benefited by training process. The purpose of this paper is to assess the benefits for the training and development in Retail organization. One of the most important resources of retail is their staff. In order to provide satisfactory service to their customer and able to face the future challenges, the staff should have proper skills which are continually develop.( Gower handbook,1991). It also outlines the special issue which identifies developments in the field of training for employees, recruitment, their transition to work, and their continuous development. Research objectives The research is focused on training and development on Marks and spencer with a view to wider application to other retailer in the country. Its objectives are to -Critically examine training needs in retail organization -Examine the role of managers in staff training and development -Examine approaches to training and development in the United Kingdom. Theoretical perspective relevant to the topics such as motivation Identify the approaches which could be adopted and make recommendations. Research Methods The research methodology will seek the answers to these questions as well as evidence as to which training needs have priority and which approach are most effective and relevant to the organization. The argument to be developed in this dissertation is that the most cost effective and culturally acceptable approach will be to identify training as an essential part of all manager roles and show how this might be implemented. The following are the types of research design that could be used -Research reviews -Qualitative research -Analysis of existing records -Ad hoc sample survey and regular surveys -Case study -longitudinal studies -Experimental Literature Review In order to explain the importance of training and development in an organisation the chapter is begin with the history of the subject, describe and discuses its definitions and benefits. It considers some model of training and development and some organisation of UK are using some of the models. History of training and development Human resources are considered by many to be the most important asset of an organization. Until now very few employers are able to exploit the full potential from their employees.(Jeff Lee,2005) Strategic human resource management (SHRM) is concerned with the contributions which human resource strategies can make to achieve organizational effectiveness and the ways to achieve those contributions (Jeff E Lee D, 2005). Strategic human resource development is the most current form of training and development where training and learning are strategically integrated vertically with organisational goals and horizontally to other HR activities (Millmore, Lewis, Saunders, thornhill and morrow 2007) Training and development can be identified as a planned process to improve the human capacity by modifying their skills, knowledge and attitudes. More recently the training and development term has been replaced by the term HRD (human resource development) which mainly focus on individual and organisational learning. The systematic approach training is described by as a cycle of four activities identify of HRD needs, plan and design HRD interventions to meet those indentify needs, implement the HRD interventions and finally evaluate the outcomes.( Millmore, Lewis, Saunders, thornhill and morrow 2007).This approach will be briefly discuss later part of the report. According to McCracken and Wallace, (2000) Strategic human resource development is a creation of a learning culture in which a range of training, development and learning strategies both respond to corporate strategy and help to shape and influence it. Based on the Garavans (1991) work, they redefined the nine key characteristic of SHRD practice. In their work they present SHRD as very strategically mature and compare with HRD and training where strategic maturity is absence. (Millmore, Lewis, Saunders, thornhill and morrow 2007) Key SHRD characteristics Integration with organisational missions and goals. Top management support. Environmental scanning. HRD plans and policies. Line manager commitment and involvement. Existence of complementary HRM activities. Expanded trainer role. Recognition of culture. Emphasis on evaluation Source: McCracken and Wallace (2000) Garavan(1995) state that many trainers find the tern SHRM difficult to accept, while they prefer the more softer term employee development or training and development. According to him HRD term is nowadays widely acceptable which means the planned learning and development of people as individual or group to benefit the organisation. McCracken and Wallace, (2000) state that, HRD is viewed as a strategic lever in organisations which helping the business to implement its business strategies. In their work they use the concept of training where they describe the level of sophistication which the organisation has with regard to training which helps to shape and formulate corporate strategy. McCracken and Wallace, (2000) suggested that the strategic HRD should shape and influence the organisational mission and goals. McCracken and Wallace, (2000) noted that SHRD should have a much more proactive and influential role which leads to a new model of SHRD which disguises the differences between Training which has a reactive and ad hoc implementation role in relation to corporate strategy. Organisation is very immature in terms of HRD and has no learning culture. Meanwhile HRD has a systematic implementation role which shows signs of corporate strategy. Organisation shows that it is beginning to develop a maturity in terms of HRD with the presence of nine Gravan (1991) characteristic and learning culture is also developing. Finally SHRD role is working toward shaping and responding to corporate strategy. The organisation has become strategically mature and there is a evidence of improved Garavan (1991) characteristic as well as presence of a strong learning culture (McCracken and Wallace, 2000).A model of SHRD which shows the continuum of HRD strategic maturity is portrayed below adopted from Millmore, Lewis, Saunders, thornhill and morrow 2007 work. HRD characteristic Training HRD SHRD HRD strategic maturity Organisation strategically is not mature in HRD terms Organisation is strategically is quite mature in HRD terms Organisation strategically very mature in terms of HRD. 1)Integration with Organisational missions And goals. 2) Top management Support. 3)Environmental scanning 4) HRD plan and policies 5)Line manager Commitment and involvement. 6)Existence of complementary HRM activities 7)Expanded trainer role. 8) Recognition of culture. 9) emphasis on evaluation. Little integration with organisation missions and goals. 2)very limited support. 3) Little awareness of environment. 4)Ad hoc responses to indentified problem. 5)Limited commitment and involvement. 6) Little or no horizontal integration of HR activities. 7) Lack of expanded trainer role. 8) little recognition of culture. 9)little emphasis on evaluation. Integration with organisational missions And goals. 2)active support 3)active environmental Scanning. 4)Systematically integrated with Organisational strategy. 5)line managers Commitment and involvement. 6)Existence of complementary HRM Activities. 7) Expanded trainer role. 8)recognition of Culture. 9)emphasis on evaluation. shaping organisational missions and goals. 2)adopt leadership role to HRD. 3)environmental scanning Done by senior management. 4)developed with strategy plan and policies. 5)strategic partnership with line management. 6)strategic partnership with HRM. 7)Trainers as organisational change consultants. 8)ability to influence corporate culture. 9)emphasis on cost effectiveness There are a number of reasons why training and development becomes an important issue for both organisations and management. All organisations in existence need a successful training programme to achieve their goal. It is an investment for any organisation which helps to improve its profitability, reduce its costs, increase the commitment and motivation of its people and release their potential. Training needs vary from one organisation to another and it is important to develop training techniques to meet training goals (www.ictknowledgebase). The Journal of E-learning (2008) stated that the purpose of training is to motivate their employees, to help their potential and develop them better with the current changing business environment of e-learning. The pace of change is increasing and it its really important for employer to keep up to date their employees. Skills gained yesterday are no longer appropriate for today. The combination of recessions, globalisation and changing technology has changed our live. Most of todays jobs demand multi skill. The days of needing one skill has replaced by the multi-skilled. Employees also need to prove their commitment to their job by developing own skills to maintain their marketability (Tony pont, 2003). The attitude of employers to training is also changing. Also there are still many employers see training as costly overhead, while many now recognise training is an investment for future.(Tony Pont,2003). According to training and development journal November 2009, A recent Accountemps/Robert Half survey found that in the past year, 26 percent of companies cut their professional development programs, according to senior executives. At the same time, 28 percent reported that their companies actually strengthened their training initiatives and 45 percent maintained the same programming. The survey also indicate that three quarter of organisation increased training level or kept training expenses at same level. After the industrial revolution, development of large organisations and systematic approach to manual work training began. Taylor and gilbreths works contributed to the importance of training by identifying the nature of job. Their research was to determine the most productive way of carrying out the work. In early 1930s hawthorns experiment in an electric plant in Chicago establish the fact what motivates staff at work place. After doing his research he was able suggest that management need to concern about the feelings and needs of employees. (Gower 1991). Defining the terms Manpower services commissions glossary of training terms (1981) identifies training as A planned process to modify attitude, knowledge or skill behaviour through learning experience to achieve effective performance in an activity or range of activities. Its purpose, in the work situation, is to develop the abilities of the individual and to satisfy the current and future manpower needs of the organisations. Training does not only benefit the employees it is also beneficial for organisations. Training and development can be achieved by necessary attitude, skill and knowledge which can be affectively gained by a learner who can become more confident about their abilities. Training is about developing people and their skills and helping them to become more confident in their jobs. It is not only necessary to create a skilled workforce but also maintain the high level of skills which is demanded by constantly changing work environment (Reid Barrington, 2007). Training can be done by many different ways such as On-the-job training, informal training, classroom training, internal training courses, external training courses, on-the-job coaching, life-coaching, mentoring, training assignments and tasks, skills training, product training, technical training, behavioural development training, role-playing and role-play games and exercises, attitudinal training and development, accredited training and learning (Reid Barrington, 2007). Many different factors influence training responsibilities and roles. There are six major influences on training responsibilities and roles in the organisation such as the environment, goal and tasks, structure, technology and workforce of the organisation, and its political system. The political factors have such influence on the training role culture, commitment, expertise and interactions (Harrison, 1988). It is important for the trainer to identify the contribution of training to the business. They need to be aware of the close relationship between training and profit. Management must see training as an investment, which is needed not only to create a skilled workforce but also maintain the skills demanded by the constantly changing working environment. In order to add values to the business training should comply with the direction of the corporate and business strategy, which also need to help to meet business demand.(Tony pont,2003) According to Harrison, Development is the all-important process, through which individual and organizational growth can through time achieve their fullest potential. Education is a major contributor to that development process, because it directly and continuously affects the formation not only of knowledge and abilities, but of character and of culture, aspirations and achievements. Training is the shorter-term, systematic process through which an individual is helped to master defined tasks or areas of skill and knowledge to predetermined standards (Harrison, 1989 cited in Lundy Cowling, 1996). The explanation of differences in definition is that in the past the trainer knew the best and therefore they used to establish training needs for learners, they also set objectives; make up a training programme which will help learner to gain higher skills. But todays changing market individual is given more responsibilities to take care of their learning and development. It is necessary to consider the learners maturity, personal development and motivation.(Kenny and Reid 1986) Training and employee development is become a current trend of todays competitive job markets which makes employers more focused on organisational goals. Todays market is very competitive and an organisation has to fight for survival where training may largely be a matter of continuing to carry out long establishes routine. According to Armstrong (1996), Organisational Structure-Generally goals of an organisations and its total tasks and level of achievement of there tasks are crucial determinants of an organisations primary training needs. The organisations should therefore have a fundamental influence on determining what training activities, responsibilities and roles are to be performed. According to Harrison(1988), Organisational structure, Organisational technology and the workforce-Organisation need to plan training to improved job performance. There is a training cycle which is adopted by UK and based on a simple four stages model expressed as follows: First identify and specify the training need, then designa training programme, next implement the training and evaluate it. Having defined training strategy it is now necessary to define effective training strategy. Effective training Strategy: The term training strategy means that the overall approach chosen to assess training needs and the particular ways in which training will be carried out in the organisation for instance on the job, off the job etc. (Harrison, 1988). According to Mayo(2001)There are two main strategies which can be adopted in organisation total or comprehensive strategy and problem centred strategy. These two strategies are not against of each other. They are simple approaches which are the same in their general principle but might be fit in different situation. The Comprehensive strategy starts with strategy starts with an analysis of the corporate plan. This strategy is relevant for the organisation where the environment is relatively stable. And where longer term training can be developed with an acceptable chance. The problem centred apply in the organization where the environment of the organisation either unpredictable or competitive. Organisation like these needs training to help them deal with their immediate and pressing problems. Models of training and development For the purpose of this dissertation three models will discussed which is using by two UKs retail organisation. The models are the systematic training approach, strategic training and self development approach. The two uks organisations are Marks and Spencer and Tesco. Systematic training approach A system approach to training views the organisation as a complex set of subsystems and expects changes in one subsystem to acquiesce possible need to another. It is organisational approach but it can also help to produce individual or group plans such as early retirement training needs, a change in work requirements and learning needs.Armstrong1988 state that organisation need to adopt this approach to be successful and this means Identifying the training needs. Defining training objectives which must aim to achieve measurable goals in terms of improvement and changing. Preparing a plan to meet objectives and also the cost related to the whole process. Implementing the plans Monitoring and analysing the result And finally getting the feedback for evaluation Woods (1992)state that, avoid such problems and to provide complete guidelines, the training needs a systematic approach. He presented a the training cycle diagram which begins with developing the needs assessment, goes through training and implementation (identifying training objectives, contents, methods, implementation), and finally evaluating the program. As we are assessing the benefits of training needs and its benefits through organisation Woods training circle helps us to look at the four steps which should be followed by the organisation to gain the effectiveness. The first in the training process is the analysing the needs because every training program effect the work unit and organisation. The next step is identifications of training objectives. Woods (1992) recommended four categories of training goals: 1. Reaction-based: Investigates how employees feel about the issue. 2. Learning-acquired.: Examines how a trainee obtains knowledge about dealing with differences. 3. On-the-job behaviour: Analyzes the degree of behaviour change after the training. 4. Results-oriented: Measures the influence of training in improving technical skills for dealing with diverse people. The third stage in the training cycle is the establishment of the proper training content. The next stage is choosing and implementing the training program using proper methods. According to Harris and West, (1993).The methods of training vary substantially according to the circumstances of the company. Training can be done either on-the-job or in a place outside the workplace. On-the-job training can be effective when supervisors or trained instructors are involved in the actual work setting, while off-the-job training, including lectures, simulation and case studies, can be done without interrupting the everyday routine. While traditional methods are still useful, technology-based training using CD-ROM is increasingly in demand. The final stage of the training cycle is evaluation. Milkovich and Boudreau (1991) highlighted that training programs need to verify whether the training is successful in trainees performances in work settings. Strategic training approach Rothwell and kazanas 1989 state that the strategic training approach is based on the learners need for the future condition. This model is based on problem finding rather than problem solving. It will help reduce the gap between what the leaners need to know and what they should know. In order to identify the proper utilisation of this model, it is important to consider what needs to be done and what skills and knowledge needed. There is a difference between the skills and knowledge needed and the skills and knowledge currently employees have. Before implementing the plan it is necessary for employers to identify those gaps. The main aims of this approach is to identify training and non training needs.the training may be related to high cost but this cost can be avoid by selecting right training method. The learners need could be made through employee record, informal discussions, observations and interviews. To implementing this approach future learner expected to have the ability to learn, anticipation and motivation. They also require having some background skills and knowledge of strategic thinking. This approach aims to reduce cost; choice of method is depend on time, skills and available learning material. Training method can be selected from case studies, classroom lecture, role playing, group exercise, brain storming etc. Self-development training approach This model encourages managers to draw up their own self development plan. Reid, Barrington and brown (2004) state that, if managers are operating an environment where learning practice are encouraged, then thy should be focused on their own development without any doubt. But self development should not seen as alternative for the involvement of the managers. It is important for the mangers to show their staff that they take time to develop their own skills and competences. If management can prove staff their role as self developer, it will ensure their staff that self development is not as a responsibility but a benefit. Development is a step forward to a new level of potential where it requires external challenges and right internal perception of challenge. It is a self initiated challenges which need self discipline, creativity and learning. The primary motivation will come from self achievement, self fulfilment while reward and punishment should take as secondary. The self developer should be willing to take their own risk and able to judge where necessary. (Pedler, 1981). Assessing the benefits of an effective training and development strategy According to Armstrong (1996), A well-formulated training strategy should be able to influence an individuals Mind, Behaviour, Attitude, Communication, Critical analysis skills, Problem-solving, Interpersonal skills/relationship with peers and management, Working practices, Productivity, Performance, Time management, And motivation towards his/her responsibilities as an employee in an organisation. Those factors are important operationally and tactically, because in any organisation these are important aspects in relation to an organisations well being and successful functioning running, strategists and the top-level management of a company .According to Mayo(2001) Organisation may design and formulate Training Strategies, but it is the tactical and operational managers and their teams who eventually implement and execute those polices and strategies and it is necessary to understand that employees and workers at tactical and operational levels have the right training and developmen t given to them to enable them to successfully forward and reach the organisations aims, goals, and mottos. If the training strategy successfully enhances it will make all employees to give better contributors to the aims and objectives of the organisation, then the successful internal relationship between employees and the management of the organisation should make them a better organisation for their clients/customers and suppliers dealers.(Mayo,2001) There are so many debates going on now a day is training really useful for organisation or its just a waste of money. According to David (2008) training is just a waste of money and time for the organisation as because after giving trained employee a new area company just send them back in previous work role which is simply waste of time. He argues that before implementing any training programme it has to be well designed and effective which will help people to explore their experience, knowledge, self-awareness. For getting out the most from the training it is important to train people in their regular basic work where they can develop their skills. Before implement any strategy We have to ask ourselves a simple question which will help us to realise, at the end of the day who is the training strategy for, what is it for, and why is it there, what is it meant to accomplish and achieve for an organisation (David, 2008). The researcher learnt from various writers that most of the training and development benefits take long to occur. Most of the managers do not fancy opening up training oppurtunities for young graduates to fear of losing jobs. Most organization think that the planned training is expensive,they would rather have it an ad hoc basis. During the economic recession it is usually the training budget that is cut down. A well-designed comprehensive training strategy can bring about advantage to a business and an organisation, then no doubt its employees will be the ones who will be responsible for its practical implementation from top to bottom, and essentially its linked to the employee development incentive of any organisation. A training strategy cannot be successfully implemented by itself if employees are not developed up to standards that match the corporate scale of the business world at large and also an organisation. Training Strategy should enable the development and growth of its employees and use the potential, competencies, and the abilities that they seize and is inherent within them (www.icmrindia.org). Mullins (2005) distinguishes Groups and teams, and has mentioned that these two terms are often used interchangeably, according to him Teams tend to have more mutual understanding between each other collectively, and are more closely knit, whereas groups are a number of individuals assigned on a particular task, and the groups usually deconstructs once the task has been achieved, so the clear distinction here is that a team has mutual understanding, where as each person in a group is merely working towards their own individual goals and aspirations without actually showing much concern for the benefit of others in the group. If the training strategy successfully implemented it will improve the relationship between employees and organisation and help them better contribution to their aims and objectives of the organisation. Communication is an important tool for succession of training strategy. The way strategies are discussed, delegated, explained and communicated from the senior directors of a company to their employees, its help to understand both employees and employers each other need which will help them to implement the strategy more perfectly. Investing in and resourcing people developing them to a reasonable level will enable employees to feel valued and respected and cared for by their organisations, and this positive feeling will eventually reflect on their performance, and The training strategy should be benefiting two ways first of all it should up skill the standard of employee competence performance and these achievements should in turn enable employees to execute their organisations Training Strategy more effectively. (www.go2hr) Minimise cost and maximise positive outputs for the organisation should be the main objective of an effective training strategy, so a well devised strategy should take into account everything internal and external of relevance, importance, and matter that will be useful in approaching a good strategy as compared to a not so good one. The training strategy designed should also be of high efficiency; practical, feasible, and realistic in accordance with the nature of the organisation(www.go2hr). According to Hutchinson(2004) An effective training strategy should be to retain the best people in the organisation, and the Training Strategy should do this by balancing its corporate needs and providing the right level of employee development incentives to their staff, employees are the money maker of any organisation, they provide support and service if they feel that they are not valued by the organisation than the company would not be able to gain their target success, that is why it is e xtremely important that employees who are excelling in their role are provided for well during their time with their organisations. According to Truelove(2006) in any job role motivation is important factor in order for an employee perform towards their employer expectations. It is a complex matter because poor motivation may be due to many things such as boredom, lack of challenge, a feeling of being unappreciated. From the Victor Vrooms perspective in the motivation there are three variables which he calls valance, expectancy and instrumentality. Valance is important during motivating the people; it can be positive, neutral or negative personalities and circumstance will affect the perception of the outcome. In a training situation the perception is varied by person to person, may be highly valued by one person but no value for other. Expectancy is the belief that the individual has that he or she can achieve the outcome. The person will not feel motivated to do something if they feel that it is beyond them. So it is important to organise the training program which will help to raise expectancy level which will help to being able to achieve target. Instrumentality situation is linked to the expected outcome which can be actually achieved depend on the management promised. Its necessary to organise the course that will lead the employee towards their dream job. So in order for an organisation to benefit from its Trainings Strategy, organisations have to apply motivation dependent on the level of creativity and fun within the different job roles in their organisation. Examples may include fringe benefits, bonuses, and performance related pay. A Training Strategy can only be successfully implemented if an employee have the right knowledge understanding of the Training Strategy and has the development and training given to them. Benefits of Training According to the journal of Development and Learning in Organizations(2002)Global petrochemical group BP found that lack of training means lack of commitment. Few years ago when they look at their staff performance they found out that the turnover is nearly hundred people but the morality was low. People are not as loyal and dedicated they should be. Then the management decide to do a survey and they discover that lack of training is the main reason behind the poor performance. Taking into account this factor BP initiated a training program adding a NVQÂ  [1]Â  programme which attracts most employees and makes them committed to the programme. Its not only increase the employees pe